Achievements of India in Space Research

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The Indian space program began establishing itself with the launch of sounding rockets, which was complimented by India's geographical proximity to the equator. These were launched from the newly-established ThumbaEquatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS)
, built near Thiruvananthapuram in southern Kerala. Initially, American sounding rockets like the Nike-Apache, and French sounding rockets like the Centaure, were fired and used for studying the upper atmospheric electrojet, which until then had only been studied from ship-based sounding rocket launches in the Pacific Ocean. These were soon followed by British and Russian rockets. However, since day one, the space program had grand
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In 1993, the time had come for the maiden flight of the PSLV. The first launch was a failure. The first successful launch took place in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has become the workhorse launch vehicle -placing both remote sensing and communications satellites into orbit, creating the largest cluster in the world, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Continual performance upgrades have increased the payload capacity of the rocket significantly since then. By this time,with the launch of the PSLV not far away, it had been decided that work should begin on the next class of launch vehicles, intended to place larger satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), and thus a launcher partly derived from the PSLV design, but featuring large liquid strap-on motors and a cryogenic upper-stage motor, was devised -the Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle.(2000--)Major achievement which seems to have gone largely unnoticed is ISRO’s successful ground testing of the cryogenic engine on November 15, 2007. This test —conducted for its full flight duration of 720 seconds at the Liquid Propulsion test facility at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu, puts India on the world map of cutting edge rocket propulsion technology. Only five other nations —The US, Russia, Japan, China and France —currently have this capability.Cryogenicengines are important for launch of satellites, particularly of the INSAT variety which
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