Lastly, it is important to include Norm Chomsky every time we talk about language acquisition. Through his studies we can say that children can learn a new language because of their innate ability in their brain to be able to classify different words, specifically grammatical terms. He suggested that we have a device in our brain which he called a Language Acquisition Device that allows children to notice the differences between two languages. In my opinion if all of us have this device. All the child needs to stimulate it to be able to learn those important first words that a child is going to need as they further exposed into a language.
Many second language acquisition theories have been developed over the years. These theories examine the avenues in which second language is acquired and the avenues in which they are learned. The avenue of socialization is crucial in learning a second language. When natural conversations occur with native and non-native speakers, a natural
Many second language acquisition theories have been developed over the years. These theories examine the avenues in which second language is acquired and the avenues in which they are
Children acquire language since they were born. They communicate with their parents. Furthermore, children and parents interact with each other using a language that we often call the first language or mother tongue. At an early age, children are only learning one language that is the mother tongue. By age and speech development, children improve to acquire a second language from the school or the environment around them. In terms of speed of langgauge acquisition, children are factorized by both the child and the child’s learning environment. Therefore, it is important to understand how children acquire second language. This paper is provided
Psychomotor factors explain the difficulty through which native-like pronunciation is acquired. In the first language acquisition, the speech muscles are in developing stage until age 5 and maintain flexibility until puberty, which assist first language acquisition native-like. Scientist suggests that this flexibility helps children in acquiring first language. However, in second language acquisition that happens after puberty the flexibility of speech muscles are reduced because of which native-like pronunciation acquisition much more difficult.
The theory suggests that the little kid’s brain has a cellular receptivity to language acquisition. This receptivity may be a function of cellular plasticity or elasticity which is controlled by a sort of biological clock. With age, the biological clock changes the cellular plasticity, which reduces the organism’s capacity to learn langugage. Penfield and Roberts predict that an optimal age period for L2 learning is between 4 and 8 because of greater brain plasticity.
The first area of difference between first (L1) and second (L2) language learning is input – specifically the quality and quantity of input. It is the idea of the "connectionist model that implies... (that the) language learning process depends on the input frequency and regularity" (5).. It is here where one finds the greatest difference between L1 and L2 acquisition. The quantity of exposure to a target language a child gets is immense compared to the amount an adult receives. A child hears the language all day everyday, whereas an adult learner may only hear the target language in the classroom – which could be as little as three hours a week. Even if one looks at an adult in a total submersion situation the quantity is still less because the amount of one on one interaction that a child gets for example with a parent or other caregiver is still much greater then the adult is receiving.
He makes an important hypothesis that universal grammar (UG). UG is a characterization of these innate principle of language faculty, I-language. (5) He then postulates some detailed structure of UG. It is a system of conditions on grammars, constraints on the form and interpretation of grammar at all levels, from the deep structures of syntax, through the transformational component, to the rules that interpret syntactic structures semantically and phonetically. The study of linguistic universals, which is classified as formal or substantive, is the study of the properties of UG for a natural language. (6) Substantive universals concern the vocabulary for the description of language and a formal linguistic universal involve the character of the rules that appear in grammars and the ways in which they can be interconnected. Language-acquisition device uses primary linguistic data as the empirical basis for language learning to meet explanatory adequacy that is defined in UG, and to select one of the potential grammars, which is permitted by UG.
Acquiring the first language is much easier than acquiring any second language as it comes “naturally” after birth. The child passes through different stages before acquiring the language till he masters it. Children follow a predictive language development through their language acquisition but it can vary from a child to another according to the external surroundings especially in the early stages.
Since, the second language is an additional language after we acquire the first language, the L2 learning process can be influenced by the L1 learning process This essay will demonstrate the similarities and differences in L1 and L2 acquisition by discussing various theories. Then, draw a conclusion based on the evidence provided and my own experience.
Second language acquisition (L2) has been often regarded as an important stage for language learning after acquired the first language. However, it is evident that Third Language Acquisition (L3) has become increasingly important and it is a new and hot topic for many scholars due to the multilingual culture in nowadays society. Over the past few decades, many scholars have investigated that L3 acquisition is more specific as L3 learners have already had an L2 in mind which they acquired certain linguistic knowledge. Gut (2009) mentioned that the learners could apply the previous language- learning experience onto the learning process of a new language. Thus, L3 learners are more competitive as they became bilingual speaker after the acquisition of two languages and they are able to draw more linguistic competence and cognitive skills and perform better than monolingual speaker. In addition, Lipinska (2015) stated that L3 pronunciation research is still an undeveloped topic to be investigated and more research are required to elaborate the reason behind the effect of L1 and L2 imposed on L3 production.
If children begin second language learning at an early stage are most likely to sooner be indistinguishable from native speakers. However, if the objective is native-like speaker proficiency, early start for second language learning has disadvantages too. Because, children start to learn the second language in the early ages and they may not proficient in their first language skills. The early start for second language learning leads to the greater the likelihood of success in
There has been a lot of research in Second Language Acquisition and there has many theories in this field. Since the 1970s more scholars have been very keen to explain the acquisition process. Particular attention has been given to the way we process information and this involves input and output. The major debate on this subject is what takes place in between the two stages. This essay will consider the contributions made by each of the above named scholars on the models of SLA. They each have their different versions of the model. Generally, the classic model of SLA is believed to be Input-Developmental system-Output. However, these two scholars have offered their own take on this classic model. The essay will first discuss the similarities of both of their models and later explain the differences between the two models.
The question of what in the input guides learners forward throughout interlanguage development (Young-Scholten & Piske, 2009) has fueled empirical investigations in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) for decades. Such interest over the strength of second language (L2) input gets transpired into a variety of research
The older the learner begins to acquire a second language, the less likely he or she is to achieve native-like proficiency. Several other factors might influence ultimate attainment post-puberty, such as motivation, learning style, and aptitude. However, age is the most reliable predictor of success or failure in second language acquisition.