measurement was used later when calculating the pH difference after adding a strong acid or base. These pH measurements show that all of the solutions, are all basic due to their pH level being
In this lab, the purpose was to determine the stability of a substance after adding an acid or a base. The results claim that liver and buffer are the most resistance to change in pH. Looking at figure 3, buffer and liver both maintain a stable pH even with the addition of an acid or base. However, potato and water have less buffer in them since their pHs did change. In figure 3, the potato acid’s pH level decreased by two, and the potato base’s pH level increased by two. The level of pH of a water acid decreased by 4, while the water base’s pH increased by 5. These results all tie to the fact that buffer is a substance that maintains a stable pH; the presence of buffer in organisms help maintain homeostasis by binding or releasing hydrogen
The problem that was trying to be solved in this study deals with analyzing unknown solutions. In this particular case, a chemical company has several unknown solutions and to correctly dispose of them they need to know their properties. To figure out the properties several qualitative tests were performed throughout the study (Cooper 2012).
A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when H+, OH-, or H20 is added. By using standard lab equipment, a lab pro diagnostic tool, and acidic and basic solutions, the pH can be found. By recording the pH while adding a base or an acid gradually to a buffer solution you can find the capacity of each buffer to resist drastic changes in pH. The best buffers will keep a solution from becoming either too acidic or basic with the addition of a strong base or acid.
For this experiment, titrations on a weak acid, acetic acid, and a buffer were performed. Acetic acid was titrated with NaOH in order to observe the half-equivalence point as well as the equivalence point. Then, the buffer and the buffered acetic acid solution prepared faced additional titration with NaOH and HCl to evaluate the differing buffering effects following the addition of a strong acid and strong base. Finally, the buffer’s buffering capacity was calculated. If the experiment were to be repeated, it would be interesting to observe the buffering effects following a titration between a weak base and a buffer instead with greater concentrations. The change in the concentration following the preparation of buffer with a weak base and its conjugate acid would pose for an interesting experiment to observe an increase in the buffering capacity.
The pH of a solution is the measure of the concentration of charged Hydrogen ions in that given solution. A solution with a pH lower than seven is considered to be acidic. A solution with a higher pH is a base. It is very important for organisms to maintain a stable pH. Biological molecules such as proteins function only at a certain pH level and any changes in pH can result in them not functioning properly. To maintain these constant pH levels, buffer solutions are used. A buffer solution can resist change to small additions of acids or base’s. A good buffer will have components that act like a base, and components that act like an acid.
To prevent fluctuation in the pH, a solution known as a “buffer solution” was used in the experiment. Buffer solutions are mixtures of at least two chemicals which counteract the effect of acids and alkalis. Therefore, when a small quantity of alkali or acid solution is added the pH of the enzyme doesn’t change.
The procedure of this lab is to determine if liver and potato cells contain natural buffers that resist large change in pH as 1. NaCl or 1. NaOH are added to the solution.
For part B, 50 mL of an assigned 50 mL pH solution of either 1 M HCl, 1 M NaOH, lemon juice, and 50 mL of household bleach all in separate 250 mL beakers are to be used. For part C, a hot plate or ice are to be used to make the 1.0 mL assigned temperature specific water. This experiment will also use the 1.0 mL of 0.1 Phosphate buffer.
pH was recorded every time 1.00 mL of NaOH was added to beaker. When the amount of NaOH added to the beaker was about 5.00 mL away from the expected end point, NaOH was added very slowly. Approximately 0.20 mL of NaOH was added until the pH made a jump. The pH was recorded until it reached ~12. This was repeated two more times. The pKa of each trial are determined using the graphs made on excel.
The problem that needed to be solved for this experiment was, “How are organisms able to survive and function with proficiency despite metabolic activities that have the disastrous ability to alter pH from a neutral to an acidic or basic environment?” This question needed to be answered by testing different biological materials, as well as tap water, in order to find out what allows modern day organisms to survive such hazardous conditions. A hypothesis that was formulated before experimenting was, “If type of substance is Tap Water, then the changes in pH will be more drastic because water, considered neutral on the pH scale, doesn’t contain a component that will prevent such a change, unlike the content of a buffer solution.” The independent variable for this experiment was type of substance, evidently because this was the part of the experiment that was constantly being changed from trial to trial. The dependent variable for this experiment was pH of the substance because the pH constantly changed depending on the type of substance was being experimented with. The control of this experiment was the tap water and buffer solutions, as the results of the data from the biological materials were constantly compared to the data from both of these solutions.
The purpose of this experiment is to examine the stoichiometric relationship between reagents and the identity of the products by using three acid/base neutralization reactions of a triprotic acid, phosphoric acid, and varying molar equivalents of sodium hydroxide. The data will be used to determine the formula weight of the products and identify the remaining salt for all three reactions.
To improve the results from the experiment buffer solutions that were not whole pHs could have been used e.g. pH 4.5, 5.5 etc. This would have provided more reliable results as a wider range of results would have been produced. Using pHs with decimals would also help to more accurately determine the optimum pH as the optimum may have been above or below the pH stated in the hypothesis; 8. In this experiment however the optimum is taken at 8 because the graph does not rise again.
The titration curve of the unknown exhibited many characteristics, such as equivalence points, pKa of ionizable groups, isoelectric point, and buffer regions, that are particularly distinct to lysine. For unclear reasons, the pH during the titration did not reach the pH for pure 0.2 M NaOH nor 0.2 M HCl and normal equivalence points expected at two extreme ends of the titration curves for all amino acids were not observed. The titration of a phosphate buffer showed that the buffer capacity is directly proportional to the molarity of the buffer. However, our results showed that although the initial pH of the phosphate buffer was less than the pKa value, the measured buffer capacity was higher towards acid than base. The accuracy of the pH meter and calibration process was questioned under assumptions that the pH of the prepared phosphate buffer was actually above pKa.
For this experiment, a pH meter was used so this part of the experiment began with the calibration of the pH meter with specified buffers. The buret was then filled with the standard HCl solution and a set-up for titration was prepared. 200g of the carbonate-bicarbonate solid sample was weighed and dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water. The sample solution was then transferred into a 250-ml volumetric flask and was diluted to the 250-mL mark. The flask was inverted several times for uniform mixing. A 50-mL aliquot of the sample solution was measured and placed unto a beaker. 3 drops of the phenolphthalein indicator was added to the solution in the beaker. The electrode of the pH meter was then immersed in the beaker and the solution containing the carbonate-bicarbonate mixture was titrated with the standard HCl solution to the phenolphthalein endpoint. Readings of the pH were taken at an interval of 0.5 mL addition of the titrant. After the first endpoint is obtained, 3 drops of the methyl orange was added to the same solution and was titrated with the standard acid until the formation of an orange-colored solution. Readings of the pH were also taken at 0.5 mL addition of the titrant.