Acid-Base Imbalance

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Acid-Base Imbalance Janet J Memoli Grand Canyon University NUR 641E September 30, 2015 Acid- Base Imbalance One of the basic concepts that new nurses need to learn is that homeostasis in the body is maintained by the acid base balance in the body. That concept is critical when looking at arterial blood gases. This can help guide the nurse to anticipate what the doctor will order and the education that she needs to give the patient and the family. This case study should help to illustrate the point. Case Study The case study that was given to us is a 22 year old woman who reports being “sick with the flu” She has been vomiting and having difficulty keeping food and drink down. In addition she has been taking…show more content…
High pH is alkalosis, low pH is acidosis.. Next you look at carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. Bicarbonate will go the same way as pH. So if the pH is high then the bicarbonate will be up, if the pH is low then the bicarbonate will be low. Carbon dioxide is the opposite. If the pH is high then the carbon dioxide is low, if the ph is low then the carbon dioxide is high ( Fournier, 2011). The possible causes of this acid base imbalance are the vomiting and the overuse of antacids. As the name implies it is bicarbonate which has been added to the body. The vomiting reduces the extracellular fluid and this in turn leads to a release of angiotensin and aldersterone. This release then increases the bicarbonate absorption and increased hydrogen ion and potassium excreted. This patient may also have hypokalemia which is very common in metabolic alkalosis and would need to be replaced if it occurred ( Thomas, 2015). The respiratory rate would also slow to try and compensate for the alkalosis. The treatment for this patient is to replace the fluid which should stop the release of angiotensin and aldersterone. This should be accomplished with normal saline. If there is hypokalemia you would need to supplement with potassium. A proton pump inhibitor would also need to be used like prilosec to prevent further losses in hydrogen ions. If she was on any diuretics they need to be discontinued and if renal failure is
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