Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Essay examples

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Acute lymphocytic leukemia is also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL. This disease is primarily when the white blood cell, WBC, making tissue releases too many undeveloped lymphocytes. The immature lymphocytes then collect in lymph tissues. The tissues swell which makes it harder for the bone marrow to produce other blood cells. If the bone marrow cannot function properly the red blood cell, RBC, count decreases causing anemia. The bone marrow also cannot create the platelets needed to cause clots, therefore resulting in the body bleeding and bruising more easily. The lymphocytes can also invade other organs, impairing their ability to function properly. ALL accounts for twenty-five percent of cancers affecting children under the…show more content…
The leukemic cells start in either B or T lymphocytes. Approximately 80% of cases start with immature B cells. One to two percent are mature B cells. Fifteen to twenty percent of all cases are derived from T cells. These cases are associated with cases that occur in older males and a need for a higher dosage of chemotherapy. In addition, the chromosomes play an important part in the diagnosis of the subtype of ALL. The TEL-AML1 fusion gene can indicate an early B cell type of leukemia. This gene also indicates a favorable prognosis. The bcr-abl t translocation gene is seen in three to five percent of all cases. Those diagnosed with ALL that have this gene will have a higher WBC count and a poorer prognosis. A rearrangement of the MLL gene accounts for 80% of infant ALL cases. The prognosis for this is poor despite the use of high intensity chemotherapeutics. There is only a twenty percent survival rate (Esparza, Sakamoto, 2005). Manifestation of the Disease When diagnosing ALL a complete patient history is taken. The client would present with weakness, pallor, and fatigue indicating anemia. The client would be feeling pain in the bones and below the ribs. The client would experience headache from increased cranial pressure (Cancer, 2010). The client would also be prone to secondary infection due to the decreased production of immature WBC. This would present with fever and sweating. The client

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