Acute Renal Failure

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1. Explain the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes. Acute renal failure is when the kidneys suddenly are unable to filter the blood of the waste products. Acute renal failure is alternatively called acute kidney failure or acute kidney injury. The causes of acute renal failure are divided into three categories based on their point of origin: prerenal, intrarenal, and post renal. The most common type of acute renal failure is prerenal, which can be described as a sudden drop in blood pressure or an interruption in blood flow to the kidneys. The common causes of prerenal AFR include hypovolemia, reduced renal perfusion, and septic shock. "Prerenal AFR is generally reversible when renal perfusion pressure is restored" (Liu, pg.98). Intrarenal, or intrinsic, acute renal failure is caused by acute tubular necrosis, renal artery obstruction, renal vein obstruction, interstitial nephritis, and glomerulonephritis. Postrenal occurs between the kidney and the urethral meatus. The major causes to postrenal AFR are tubular precipitation, urethral obstruction and bladder obstruction. Acute renal failure has four phases: onset, oliguria, diuresis and recovery. Onset begins with onset of the event and lasts for hours to days. The oliguria stage doesn't always occur in certain patients; however it lasts for 8-15 days. Oliguria deals with multiple acid-base balance diseases. The diuresis stage begins when the kidneys start to recover

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