Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lungs, it can be caused by a variety of organisms entering the body – including bacteria, viruses or fungi. The infection causes an inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs and may result in the alveoli filling with fluid or other purulent material (Mayo Clinic, 2016). An accumulation of fluid within alveoli and portions of the lungs, can reduce the ability of the lungs to allow for oxygen diffusion across the alveoli walls. If oxygen saturation is low, it can cause the body’s cells to not work effectively. Therefore, the risk of the infection spreading through the body is increased – it is due to this reason, that pneumonia can be life-threatening (American Lung Foundation, 2016). Pneumonia
Last week Thursday on the orthopedic clinic was a slow but eye opening experience. When I got to the clinic at 8AM, after I was introduced to some of the nurses there, I was immediately assigned to a Medical Assistant (MA) that I had shadow for half of the day. The MA shows me around the clinical and explained her role and responsibility in the clinic setting. During the first several hours, and MA and I were quite busy rooming the patient. Because the MA want me to see how to do thoroughly assessment on a new patient, the MA did a thoroughly assessment and examinations on the first patient we saw. During the assessment, the MA also explained some of the medical procedures to the patient. She did a set of vitals on the patient, particular on new patient, such as blood pressure, height, and weight. We had a total of 15 patients during the morning.
1. A physician is called to the intensive care unit to provide care for a patient who received second- and third-degree burns over 50 percent of his body due to a chemical fire. The patient is in respiratory distress and is suffering from severe dehydration. The physician provides support for two hours. Later that day the physician returns and provides an additional hour of critical care support to the patient.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs when fluid builds up in the tiny, elastic air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. More fluid in your lungs means less oxygen can reach your bloodstream. This deprives your organs of the oxygen they need to function.
The observation of both animal and humans has revealed that mechanical ventilation can cause severe lung injury if over-distention occurs (Roupie et al., 1995). To make the matter even worse, the very patients that need mechanical ventilation the most, patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome for example, are especially susceptible to over-distention and therefore, lung injury (Stewart et al., 1998). The main reason that patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome or respiratory distress syndrome are in higher risk of lung injury is due to over-distention, caused by reduced numbers of alveoli as result of fluid buildup, consolidation, and atelectasis (Roupie et al., 1995).
The client’s secondary diagnosis is community-acquired pneumonia. Typically, immune defense mechanisms, such as the secretion of alveolar macrophages and immunoglobulins A and G, protect the lower airway from infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia, invades the lungs. The organism triggers an inflammatory response, resulting in increased blood flow and vascular permeability. Neutrophil activation occurs, to surround the kill the invading organism. A combination of the offending organism, neutrophils and fluid from the surrounding blood vessels flood the alveoli, inhibiting normal oxygen transportation. This filling of the alveoli may lead to tachypnea, tachycardia and dyspnea. Further obstruction of airflow and an increased impairment of gas exchange occur as mucous production increases. When
The American Association for Respiratory Care is a non-profit organization which provides numerous resources for registered respiratory therapists all over the United States. Membership through the AARC renders an abundance of incentives such as professional development, respiratory care education, social networking opportunities, continuing education programs and much more. The American Association for Respiratory Care truly believes in the cause of respiratory therapy and in the rights of their patients to receive competent respiratory care. Their advocacy team works with local, state and federal governments concerning public policies that affect their patients as well as their profession.
According to the American Lung Association, “Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly progressive disease occurring in critically ill patients.” ARDS is an extreme manifestation of a lung injury that can be associated with an acute medical problem. This occurs as a result of direct or indirect trauma to the lungs. With nearly 200,000 cases in the United States each year, ARDS is not extremely common (“Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome”). Most people who acquire this disease are critically ill patients within the hospital. The most common predisposing medical problems of ARDS consist of: shock, trauma, pulmonary infections, sepsis, aspiration, and cardiopulmonary bypass (Ignatavicious, 2013). ARDS is a severe syndrome and even with prompt and aggressive medical treatment, almost fifty percent of those diagnosed do not survive. Those who survive have a longer hospital stay along with recurring hospital admissions throughout their lifetime (“Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome”). Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rapidly progressive disease which requires thorough assessment, rapid diagnosis, and emergency treatment measures in order to successfully respond to the disease process.
The practical level would be the code level that the American Association of Respiratory Care falls under. According to the text, the practical level is set up to be achieved by a majority of people with the attempt to follow the rules most of the time. Unlike the other code levels, the practical level fits the medical professions more closely. When a persons career or job involves the safety of another living beings life, I believe it is very important to follow the rules all of the time, as well as majority of workers should do so as well . Rules and principles are put in place to prevent harm to patients and also to protect the employees from harm. The AARC' code of ethics is really a safety guideline for everyone in that specific environment.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral disease. Its cause is the coronavirus, and it has been a pandemic infection in the past (Thiel, 2007). While SARS has not been completely eradicated, the last confirmed infection was in 2004 and was laboratory induced (Thiel, 2007). The last confirmed, naturally-occurring case was in 2003 at the end of an outbreak (Smith, 2006; Blendon, 2003). There were few SARS-related deaths in the United States, but there were numerous infections. All of those people acquired the disease from traveling abroad, and it did not spread widely as the US population feared it might. The majority of SARS cases were in China, which caused some Asian-Americans in the US to feel stigmatized (Thiel, 2007). The following picture shows the cases and deaths by country: INCLUDEPICTURE "http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Sars_Cases_and_Deaths.pdf/page1-776px-Sars_Cases_and_Deaths.pdf.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET
"The common clinical features among the case-patients included a prodromial illness of fever, chills, and myalgia. The prodrome was followed by dyspnea, cough, throbocytopenia, severe hemodynamic instability, neutrophilid with immature forms, atypical lymphocytes, elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase. There was a high mortality rate, approximately eighty percent in the initial group of patients, the chest x-ray examinations revealed a diffuse, interstitial infiltrate that resembled that observed in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a common pattern in patients
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common lung disorder that mostly affects preterm infants. RDS is caused by insufficient surfactant production and structural immaturity of the lungs leading to alveolar collapse. Clinically, RDS presents soon after birth with tachypnea, nasal flaring, grunting, retractions, hypercapnia, and/or an oxygen need. The usual course is clinical worsening followed by recovery in 3 to 5 days as adequate surfactant production occurs. Research in the prevention and treatment of this disease has led to major improvements in the care of preterm infants with RDS and increased survival. However, RDS remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the most preterm infants. This chapter reviews the most current evidence-based management of RDS, including prevention, delivery room stabilization, respiratory management, and supportive care.