Acute Treatment Of Acute Kidney Injury

967 Words Nov 15th, 2014 4 Pages
Acute kidney injury (AKI, previously referred to as acute renal failure) is a common and serious condition particularly among hospitalized patients with acute illness and those undergoing major surgery.It can be life-threatening but it can also be reversible. Clinically AKI is characterized by abrupt loss of kidney function resulting in a rapid decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR),water and electrolytes imbalance, and accumulation of nitrogenous wastes such as blood-urea nitrogen and creatinine.
Epidemiology of AKI
The mortality rate of AKI is very high (up to 80% mortality in critically ill children and adults).The incidence rate of AKI has increased in hospitalized patients gradually from 4.9% in 1983 [1] to 20% in 2012 [2].There are more than 35 definitions of AKI [3] which makes the incidence rate varies greatly due to the lack of a standard and Definition. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) published (RIFLE) criteria (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stag) in 2004 (table1).

Pathophysiology:
In order to study a biomarker of AKI, It is very important to understand the early response mechanism of the kidney to acute injury. AKI results from multiple causative factors which are classified as pre renal (ischemia, hypovalemia), renal(toxins, drugs, infection and inflammation of the kidney e.g glomerulonephritis and acute tubular necrosis) and post renal (obstruction e.g Acute obstructive uropathy, benign prostatic hyperplasia and kidney stone).This…
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