Adaptations And Applications Of Physical Extremes

1646 Words Apr 4th, 2015 7 Pages
Extremophiles: adaptations and applications to physical extremes

On the earth, millions of organisms live in various environments. They need certain temperature, pH, nutrient growth, certain range of salt, pressure, water and so on. However, some organisms can live beyond these conditions which mean they can survive in extreme environmental conditions called Extremophiles (Gupta, Khare et al., 2014). These extreme environments are: highly pressure, acidic or alkaline region, high temperature or extreme low temperature condition. These organisms have different characterisation and biochemical mechanism for tolerating some environmental conditions on the earth. They adopt to live in extreme condition by different enzymes or biomolecules. There are different types of Extremophiles. For example, thermophiles, acidophiles, barophiles, radiophiles, halophiles, xerophiles, osmophiles. There are two main types of extreme conditions: physical (radiation, Temperature, pressure) and geochemical (pH, salinity). These microorganisms found in various typical environments on the earth. Some grow in the deep sea where the pressure is very high and some can survive in Antarctica, the place always having ice and glaciers. Extremophiles can tolerate extreme conditions but also they have to need those environments for their growth. Extremophiles organisms present in all three domains bacteria, archaea and eukarya but most of extremophiles are come from archaea group. Archaea have…
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