The goal of this experiment was to synthesize aspirin. In this experiment aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. In the reaction the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring in salicylic acid reacted with acetic anhydride to form an ester functional group. This method of forming acetylsalicylic acid is an esterification reaction. Since this esterification reaction is not spontaneous, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst to initiate the reaction. After the reaction was complete some unreacted acetic anhydride and salicylic acid was still be present in the solution as well as some sulfuric acid, aspirin, and acetic acid. Crystallization, which uses the principle of
From the vial labeled “AE,” aspirin (0.533 g) was placed into a 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask with a boiling stick. Toluene (20 mL) was brought to a boil on a hot plate. The boiling toluene (10 mL) was then added to the aspirin until the solid dissolved completely. After allowing the solution to reach room temperature, the solution was placed in an ice bath for 16 minutes. After the crystals
Approximately 2.1 mL of 50% sulfuric acid was added to the mixture. A reflux apparatus was set up using a water condenser. The reaction was heated over boiling water and stirred for fifteen minutes. Water (8 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, which was then cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel and an extraction of the isobornyl acetate layer was conducted with water (15 mL) twice to remove most of the acid. The isobornyl acetate layer was then again extracted with 10% sodium bicarbonate (15 mL) to remove the remaining acid. The final aqueous layer was removed and the remaining isobornyl acetate was dried over sodium sulfate for ten minutes. A few drops of the final sample were taken to an IR spectrometer to perform an IR analysis. A large spike at 1735.62 cm-1 was seen in the IR analysis. The remainder of the final product was placed in a vial, weighed, and the mass (3.95 g) was recorded. Percent yield was calculated to
Acetic Anhydride and p-Aminophenol were heated in a vial attached to an air condenser to synthesize crude acetaminophen, resulting in 0.097 grams (47.48% yield). The crude acetaminophen was then recrystallized in a solvent of water and methanol over heat resulting in 0.082 grams (39.61% yield) of pure acetaminophen. Melting points of both crude and pure acetaminophen were taken, and found to be 165.9 - 170.9°C and 168.2 - 171.5°C, respectively. The literature melting point of acetaminophen is 169.5 – 171.0°C, indicating that our final product was pure.
The purpose of this lab was to experiment with triprotic acid to create different salts through neutralization. Specifically, using varying volumes of sodium hydroxide with a constant 1 mL of 6M Phosphoric acid. In doing so one can examine the reactions and use stoichiometry to identify the products formed from the relationship between the reagents.
This experiment involved three steps: synthesis of aspirin, isolation and purification, and the estimation of purity of the final product. The synthesis involved the reaction of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst, phosphoric acid, H3PO4. When the aspirin was prepared, it was isolated and filtered. The percentage yield of the synthesis was calculated to be 78.42%. The experimental melting point range of aspirin was determined to be 122 -132°C. Due to its wide range, and lower value than that of the theoretical melting point of 136°C, it was
The objective of this lab is to synthesize acetaminophen from p-aminophenol. The techniques used to do so, consist of: reflux with heat to allow reaction to occur at a reasonable time period, extraction and filtration to isolate the desired product, and characterization of the product by analyzing IR spectras and melting points. Acetaminophen considered synthesized, primarily due to the IR spectrum exhibiting all the bond vibrations is the amide group. The percent yield of 124.6% imply that there was a mechanical error that occurred, thus, also tampering with the progression of the chemical reaction. The wide melting point range of 165 C-169 C denote the impurity of the acetaminophen product.
Ever wonder about the chemical makeup of tablets that people take for pain relief? Before a tablet can be successfully made, the limiting and excess reactants must be considered. The limiting reactant will affect the amount of the product that can be made. Another reason why the starting reactants must be determined carefully is to make reduce the amount of the reactant in excess so that reactants are not wasted. This experiment uses an Alka-Seltzer tablet. Alka-Seltzer dissolves in water and is an antacid and a pain reliever1. The Alka-Seltzer tablet has many uses such as relief of headaches, ingestion, heart burns, or even upset stomachs2. The active ingredients in an Alka-Seltzer tablet is aspirin, also known as acetyl-salicylic acid (C8H12O4), citric acid (C6H8O7), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)2. The aspirin in the Alka-Seltzer tablet helps with pain relief. Because of the acid-base chemistry (Brønsted-Lowry), citric acid and sodium bicarbonate produce O2, which makes the tablet fizz when it is dropped in liquid. The Brønsted-Lowry theory shows how the Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a hydrogen ion while the Brønsted-Lowry base accepts the hydrogen ions3. The remaining NaHCO3 that is in excess post reaction with the citric acid is what is used to neutralize stomach acid which helps relief heart burn2. The problem in
The filter paper, holding the aspirin crystals, was removed from the funnel and was left to dry before being weighed. Once the aspirin crystals were weighed, the theoretical yield and the percent yield of the experiment were calculated. The procedure was repeated once more using the same steps.
Both Aspirin and the Unknown are soluble in dichloromethane, due to their non-polar characteristics. To separate the two components, sodium bicarbonate was added (see figure 3). Sodium bicarbonate reacted with aspirin and converted it to a salt, also forming water and carbon dioxide. It was observed that the solution "fizzed" when this reaction took place, showing the release of carbon dioxide. The newly formed salt then traveled to an aqueous layer where it was soluble, while the unknown remained in the dichloromethane layer. The two layers were then separated. To collect an aspirin solid, the combination of the addition of HCl and the process of vacuum filtration helped to break down the salt and form a solid. Then the solid was placed in the Fisher Scientific Biotemp Oven to dry it to a constant mass of 0.091 g, 32.97% of the total composition. The
2. Describe any evidence that a chemical reaction occurred when you added 6 M HCl to the solution of sodium acetylsalicylate (the conjugate base of aspirin) and explain why they took
We made sure the solution is strongly acidic by testing it with litmus paper getting a pH of 2. We then cooled the mixture to room temperature swirling the flask occasionally in an ice bath. We collected the aspirin by vacuum filtration and washed the aspirin on the filter with cold distilled water. We let it air dry for 30-35 minutes and then weighed the aspirin. It weighed out at 0.513g. The unknown component was calculated and weighed at 0.738g.
Analysis: To determine if the label reads correctly, we need to find all of our percent recoveries. Once again to try and illustrate this, we need to use all of our background knowledge. Acetanilide and Phenacetin are not soluble in H2O, but are soluble in CH2Cl2. They also cannot be converted into salts by sodium hydroxide. Since the two possible unknowns cannot be dissolved in water, I can mix Panacetin with CH2Cl2. This, dissolves the aspirin and the unknown components, leaving us a powdery looking substance called sucrose, that will need to be filtered.
In some cases, reactions will not respond to heat and chemical change. Undesired side products may be produced as well in experiments such as this. Mechanical errors play as role as well when products are loss due to improper weighing, transferring, and drying methods. These reasons will also affect the melting range of the product as well. The end result for this experiment will be the production of acetaminophen, a fever reducing and pain-relieving compound, which is use in creating
This experiment was designed by conducting a substitution reaction to construct a complex compound (2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) from two simple parts; also known as synthesis - converting simple molecules into more complex molecules. A purification technique known as crystallization was used to purify the product. Suction filtration was used to filter out the product. The experiment was completed over a three-day experimental period.