Addiction : A Powerful Force

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Introduction Addiction is a powerful force. The complex interplay of biological, environmental, social, and behavioral factors puts addicted individuals at great personal risk. While addiction has traditionally been viewed as an urban issue, in recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the foothold opioids have gained in rural America (U.S. DHHS, 2012). As rates of drug addiction rise throughout the Midwest and Ohio, rates of hospitalization and drug poisoning deaths also increase. While extant data does not elucidate a causal relationship between these variables, strong correlations are evident. Furthermore, the lack of information about this issue highlights the need for more accurate data collection in order to resolve the…show more content…
DHHS, 2012). Widespread opioid abuse is a relatively recent phenomenon, particularly for rural populations (Rudd et al., 2016; U.S. DHHS, 2012). Trends suggest that increases in drug abuse have led to increases in hospitalizations related to drug poisoning, or overdoses (Rudd et al., 2016). Longitudinal data explicitly capturing the relationship between drug abuse and hospitalizations is scant, thereby highlighting the need for more accurate record-keeping; however, current data suggest a need for more effective emergency responses for rural populations (Unick, Rosenblum, & Ciccarone, 2013; Rudd et al., 2016).
Background information: Risk factors associated with the behavior When studying any public health phenomenon, it is imperative for researchers to examine the interplay between contextual facts that influences population health outcomes. Biological factors and early childhood events significantly influence adolescent behavior, at which point many young people begin experimenting with substance use. Research has identified that subpar prenatal neurological experiences and family history of substance abuse disorders are predictive of substance use in young adulthood (Bastra, Hadders-Algra, Ormel, & Neeleman, 2004; Courtney & Polich, 2009; Kreek, Nielsen, Butelman, & LaForge, 2005; Malone et al., 2004). Further, likelihood of drug use in young adulthood may be compounded if both parents experience substance abuse
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