Psychology Module 1
Addiction, Research Methods & Schizophrenia
1) BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
This approach suggests that we become addicted to something because doing without the stimulus is very unpleasant. Tolerance is an important concept in biological explanations of addiction. The more we use a substance or carry out certain behaviours, the more tolerant we are to its effects, so addicts must continue the addictive behaviour more and more to maintain the subsequent positive feeling it creates. Withdrawal occurs when the addict stops engaging in the addictive behaviour, but a range of unpleasant physical symptoms arise, known as withdrawal symptoms. Neurotransmitters play a role in both chemical and non-chemical…show more content… To avoid the negative feelings associated with withdrawal, the addict continues to gamble. (+) Orford et al. (1996) found that gamblers and alcoholics both experience similar withdrawal symptoms and levels of perceived strength of addiction. (-) self-report methods (-) addicts are likely to lie (-) Potenza et al. (2003) found, from MRI scans, differences in blood flow to the brains of non-gamblers and gamblers when watching a gambling tape compared to a happy or sad film. (-) cause and effect RELAPSE Gamblers experience similar withdrawal symptoms to addicts with substance addictions, so a theory stands that gamblers relapse in order to stop the withdrawal symptoms. (-) Ciarrochi et al. (1987) found gamblers often have other addictions, such as alcoholism or shopping addictions. Cues associated with the behaviour, i.e. chips or dice, often cause a relapse of dopamine that the original gambling behaviour did. This causes prediction of a reward, which can cause a relapse. (-) Reductionism: biological approach reduces addiction, a complex phenomenon, to simple terms.
3) COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS
The cognitive model places emphasis on interpretation of events and habitual ways of thinking to explain the development of addictive behaviour. Beck (2001) developed the vicious circle to explain addiction from his cognitive triad:
Coping by Using
Low Mood Financial,