Adhd Research Paper 1

2246 Words Mar 27th, 2012 9 Pages
TERM RESEARCH PAPER
ON
ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

Introduction

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (“ADHD”) is a common childhood disorder that represents developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and overactivity. It occurs in 3% to 5% of the school age population as stated by (Craighead, Craighead, Kazdin & Mahoney, 1994). Another author (Barkley, 1981) stated that ADHD occurs in at least one child in every classroom. As a result of these statistics, ADHD has become one of the most commonly referred and heavily studied psychological disorders of childhood. Studies show that about 50-60% of children with ADHD in the age range of five to seven years are hostile and defiant. By the
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Some major causal variables that have been identified are categorised as neurological factors, toxic reactions, genetic linkages and environmental factors. However, most of the available evidence found, points to neurological factors, which are imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain, and genetic variables as the primary causes of ADHD. The environmental factors and toxic reactions (such as lead exposure and food additives) are considered very minimal causes of ADHD. The search for causes of ADHD continues. There are many variables which are biological or thought to have an affect on biological functioning.

Assessment of ADHD

An evaluation of a child with ADHD includes multiple assessment techniques. The main goals of the assessment are:-

1. to gather information about the developmental deviance of ADHD symptoms or other behavioural problems. 2. to rule out other psychiatric, learning or emotional problems that may be causing inattention, impulsivity, and/or overactivity. 3. to determine the degree of consistency between the sources and across situations with respect to reports of behaviours associated with ADHD. 4. to identify and prioritise targets for intervention. Conducting interviews with parents, teachers and the child.

To determine the four factors just mentioned, the following methods are used:-

1. Interviews - to be conducted with parents, teachers and the child 2. Rating Scales - to compare the child’s

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