Administrative System in India at the Advent of British Rule

4807 Words Jul 14th, 2011 20 Pages
UNIT 1 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM AT
THE ADVENT OF BRITISH RULE
1.0 ' Objectives
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Mauryan and Gupta Administration
1.3 Major Characteristics of Moghul Administration
1.3.1 Role of the King
1.3.2 Bureaucracy
1.3.3 Army
1.3.4 Police
1.4 Structure of the Moghul Administrative System
1.4.1 Central Administration
1.4.2 Provincial Administration
1.4.3 District and Local Administration
1.5 Revenue Administration
1.5.1 Land Revenue as the Primary Source of Income
1.5.2 Types of Land Tenurial Systems
1.5.3 Administration of Land Revenue
1.5.4 Important Revenue Reforms
1.5.5 Modus Operandi of Revenue Collection
1.6 Administration of Justice
1.6.1 Administration of Civil Justice
1.6.2 Administration of Criminal Justice
1.7 Let Us Sum
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In the Mauryan administration, the State had to perform two types of functions.
The constituent (component) functions related to maintenance of law and order, security of person and property and defence against aggression. The ministrant
(welfare) functiods had to do with provision of welfare services. All these functions were carried out by highly organised and elaborate governmental machinery. The empire was divided into a Home Province under the direct control of the central government and 4 to 5 outlying provinces, each under a
Viceroy who was responsible to the Central Government. The provinces had considerable autonomy in this "feudal-federal type" of organisation. Provinces were divided into districts and districts into villages with a whole lot of officials in charge at various levels. There was city government too and two types of courts corresponding to the modem civil and criminal courts. All the administrative wark was distributed among a number of departments, a very important department being the special tax department, managed by an efficient and highly organised bureaucracy who was supplemented by the army and the secret police.
The king was all-powerful and everything was done in his name. He was
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