Adolescent Suicide Is A Preventable Public Health Issue

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Although most of the media attention focuses on adolescent homicide, suicide deaths should have us more alarmed, and we should understand that adolescent suicide is a preventable public health issue. In adolescent Suicide deaths are more prevalent than homicide deaths (CDC, 2012). According to the National Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents age 13 to 17 (CDC, 2016). That number surpasses the number of deaths due to chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV, and diabetes. While this is a significant number, not all suicide attempts are reported (Joiner, 2005). Furthermore, suicide accounted for 10 % of
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(Durkheim, 1951, Danigelis, & Pope,1979).
Shneidman’s theory of psychache argues suicide is caused by a certain kind of psychological pain. Risk factors increases psychache which leads an individual to suicidality (Shneidman, 1993). The pain is so unbearable to an individual that the only way to relieve it is suicide. Baumeister’s escape theory of suicide believes certain steps promotes suicide, 1) individuals perception of expectations and actual events are more negative, 2) an aversive self-awareness develops, (individual focuses on negative aspects of them self and become depressed) 3) in an attempt to escape the effects from the first two steps an individual goes into a state of cognitive deconstruction (.Baumeister, 1990) This reduces inhibition which leads to a lack of impulse control.
These theories focus more on the emotional and psychological aspect of suicide. They seem to identify what causes the suicide ideation. However, it does not explain how one goes from emotion to action. Just because someone has thought about suicide, does not mean they will attempt suicide, they need to have the acquired capability (lack of fear of dying) in order to attempt suicide (Joiner, 2005, Van Orden et al.,). Suicide is a very difficult act, it requires you to go against the self-preservation you have been programmed with (Ohman & Mineka, 2001).
George, Page, Hooke, & Stritzke, (2016) tested the
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