Adrenal Gland

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Adrenal gland
In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangular-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys. They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in conjunction with stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol and adrenaline (epinephrine), respectively.
Anatomy and function
Anatomically, the adrenal glands are located in the retroperitoneum situated atop the kidneys, one on each side. They are surrounded by an adipose capsule and renal fascia. In humans, the adrenal glands are found at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra. Each adrenal gland is separated into two distinct structures, the adrenal cortex and medulla, both of which
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The suprarenal veins may form anastomoses with the inferior phrenic veins.
The adrenal glands and the thyroid gland are the organs that have the greatest blood supply per gram of tissue. Up to 60 arterioles may enter each adrenal gland.[4]
Terminology
The adrenal glands are named for their location relative to the kidneys. The term "adrenal" comes from ad- (Latin, "near") and renes (Latin, "kidney"). Similarly, "suprarenal" is derived from supra- (Latin, "above") and renes. Colloquially, they are referred to as "kidney hats".
Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis. Contents * 1 Layers * 2 Hormone synthesis * 3 Production * 3.1 Mineralocorticoids * 3.2 Glucocorticoids * 3.3 Androgens * 4 Pathology * 5 See
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