Advances in Automobile Emission Control Techniques

3793 Words Nov 22nd, 2011 16 Pages
3rd, December, 2005

Paper presentation on
ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES

by lakshmi & SriBharani Latha, B.Tech (MECH)
GRIET, Bachupally, Hyderabad.

Contents:

1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Types of emissions a) Tailpipe emissions b) Evaporative emissions 4. Emission standards 5. Need to control emissions 6. Emission Testing Procedures 7. Emission control techniques I. Tailpipe emission control techniques i) Increasing engine efficiency by Electronic Ignition, Fuel injection… ii) Increasing vehicle efficiency iii) Increasing driving efficiency iv) Cleaning up the emissions by Air Injection, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Catalytic Converter, Spark Optimizer II.
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I. GAS TANK VENTING (OR) DIURNAL: Gasoline evaporates as the temperature rises during the day, heating the fuel tank and venting the gasoline into the atmosphere.
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II. RUNNING LOSSES: The escape of gasoline vapors from the engine and exhaust system when the car is running results in running losses.

III. REFUELING LOSSES: These can cause a lot of HC vapor emission. The empty space inside a vehicle’s tank is filled with HC gases, and as the tank is filled, these gases are forced out into the atmosphere.

IV. HOT SOAK: The engine remains hot for a period of time, after that car is turned off, and gasoline evaporation continues when the car is parked.

In addition to these, automobile also generates several other sources of pollution which include:

Water Pollution from fluids that leak from cooling systems, engines and transmissions.

Hazardous waste from discarded fluids, tires, batteries and the like asbestos fibers from brake linings and clutches.

EMISSION STANDARDS:

To limit the amount of pollutants that can be released into the atmosphere certain standards are introduced “EMISSION STANDARDS”. Many emission standards focus on regulating the amount of material that can be released by the automobiles and the amount of smog forming material that can be released.

Standards generally regulate the amount of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, the sulfur, HC and particulate matter (PM) that