As scientists we were given the task to find the overall effectiveness of NaCl as a deicer. In choosing the best deicer we are comparing NaCl to KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2. We believed NaCl to be the best deicer as it
The product ratio of N-ethylsaccharin to O-ethylsaccharin that occurred due to alkylation with iodoethane at 80 oC was determined to be 81.5% to 18.5%, respectively, based on an analysis of the 1H NMR spectrum that was collected. The melting point range of 87.8-94.7 oC also indicated that the mixture was largely composed of N-ethylsaccharin. The more prevalent product structure is:
The purpose of this experiment is to exemplify how differences in molecular weight allow separation of polymers from their monomers. Methods of dialysis and gel filtration chromatography will be used to separate a glucose monomer from a starch polymer. Colorimetric glucose oxidase assay will be used to monitor the presence of glucose and a colorimetric iodine assay will be used to monitor the presence of starch in prepared solutions after separation
Moreover, CtXynGH30 also displayed activity against the polysaccharides having xylan main chain decorated with arabinose side chains such as arabinoxylans. Therefore a range of substrates showing the enzyme activities were treated with CtXynGH30 and the hydrolysed products were analyzed by TLC. The results showed that the enzyme is active against different polysaccharides and produces a series of oligosaccharides. The enzyme is active on xylan main chain polysaccharide substrates like beechwood-, birchwood- and 4-O-methyl glucurono-xylan and capable of releasing oligosaccharides such as xylose, xylobiose and other higher neutral and acidic oligosaccharides (Lane 1-3, Fig. 5). CtXynGH30 also acted over substrates having xylan main chain decorated with various degrees of arabinose side chains like oat spelt xylan, wheat arabinoxylan and rye arabinoxylan and producing xylobiose, xylotriose and other higher oligosaccharides (Lane 4-6, Fig. 5). Furthermore, the TLC profile of CtXynGH30 showed hydrolysis of arabinogalactan and more likely the release of arabino- oligosaccharides (Lane 7, Fig. 5), whereas, arabinan (sugar beet) and xyloglucan did not release any hydrolysed product (Lane 8-9, Fig. 5). The ability of CtXynGH30 to hydrolyse arabinoxylans apart from glucuronoxylans
PURPOSE: Measure the effects of changes in catalase concentration, substrate concentration, and salinity on the reaction rates of an enzyme.
Another common remediation technique is stabilization or solidification which aims to alter the contaminants into a less soluble or mobile form (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). In both methods water and a site-specific chemical solution is mixed into the soil to either alter its physical - make it less soluble - or chemical - reduce mobility - properties to make it less likely that the contaminants will move into other locations or be inhaled (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001). Chemical treatment can also fall under the umbrella term of stabilization. Chemical treatment is add chemical solutions to the soil to detoxify the soil and can be used as a pre-treatment for other techniques such as solidification (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001). These techniques are typically preferred due to lower costs but other physical elements of the soil, such as boulders, can make mixing the soil difficult and the process can volatilize and release volatile compounds (Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). Mobility of contaminants can also be reduced by using the technique of vitrification through the process of heating up the soil (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). This method results
The purpose of this assessment was to characterize the pre-blended GPS (Grain Processing Corporation) alcohol, a mixture of 190/200 proof SDA-3A alcohols, produced from corn feedstocks (yellow No. 2 dent. corns) through enzymatic, fermentation, and distillation methods. For this purpose, the chemical and physical properties as show in the Certificate of Analysis (CoA) of the SDA-3AU were considered and their effects were investigated. This was performed by comparing the typical and acceptable limits of the weight percentage of total alcohol and methanol in the SDA-3AU against the current
It can be seen that enzymes are basically proteins with large molecules.. An enzyme is made up of long natural chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds, so it chemically contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and some sulfur. The proteins are tertiary in which they fold up to give the enzyme its active site. The initial level of the enzyme involves the sequence of amino acids. Every amino acid has an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen group, and an R group that can be different with each amino cell all connecting to the alpha carbon. Based on what the R group is, it can be determined whether or not an amino acid can be uncharged, polar, a base, an acid, or charged. The secondary level then involves
The scientific context of the Phenylalanine Deaminase is prove that organisms that produce phenylalanine deaminase can be identified by their ability to deaminate the amino acid phenylalanine. In the test, three tubes will be immunized with Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris , the unknown ,and a control group.The positive outcomes demonstrated a green shading and the negative outcomes demonstrated no shading. In the experiment, two phenylalanine plates would be inoculated with the organism that were being tested. The Bile Esculin test, four bile esculin agar would be inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, the unknown and a control group. Any blackening or brown coloring of organisms are positive and coloring is a
The purpose of this lab report is to investigate the effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity as tested with the enzyme catalase and the substrate hydrogen peroxide at several concentrations to produce oxygen. It was assumed that an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration would decrease the amount of time the paper circle with the enzyme catalase present on it, sowing an increase in enzyme activity. Therefore it can be hypothesised that there would be an effect on catalase activity from the increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration measured in time for the paper circle to ride to the top of the solution.
What is an enzymes, the advantages and disadvantages around enzymes, the ideal environment conditions for my enzyme proteases and the importance of my enzyme proteases? My investigation is what is best ph level for the enzyme proteases and how does react in different ph levels and to see how well it works to remove chocolate sauce and egg yolk stain out of a piece of cloth in different ph levels.
Its function is to catalyse the hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin to a mixture of products, including maltose and dextrin, which are polysaccharides. Maltose consists of two alpha glucose remains joined by 1,4 linkage; Dextrin is made up of several alpha glucose units joined by 1,4 and 1,6 linkages. Pullulanase, also known as debranching enzyme, hydrolysis the alpha 1,6 links at the branching points in the polysaccharide. Commercial sources of these enzymes include bacteria and fungi. Fungi amylases are used to clarify fruits juices, wines and beer by removing suspended starch.
They operate in mild conditions, i.e. low temperatures, neutral pH and normal atmospheric pressure, which consequently results in low energy consumption thereby helps in saving energy.
The stearic acid is obtained from animal fats. The molecular formula is C17H35COOH and its composed of a hydrophilic acid group, COOH, and a hydrocarbon chain C17H35. The long hydrocarbon chain is like lubrication oil, because it does not have any affinity for water. In other words, when the stearic acid becomes in contact with water it doesn’t mix in water. The hydrophobic chain floats upwards in a vertical position in the solution. (ChemSkills) When the stearic acid was dropped to the water it spreads across the surface until it creates a monolayer, a one molecule thick layer. The volume of stearic acid was calculated by determining the number of drops used to create the monolayer on the dish by using the following equation:
AIM : Thin-Layer Chromatography can show many different characteristics of a mixture. It is recognized for isolation , separation ,identification, and anaylsis of the mixture’s components. The purpose of this experiment is to separate carbohydrates into its pure components such as mixtures of monosacrides by TLC. TLC is used to identify sugars in normal and pancreatic disease urine, the procedure is easy and reproducible .