Advantages And Disadvantages Of Leaded Additives

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additives have replaced the lead compounds. The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). For technical reasons the use of leaded additives is still allowed to use widely in world for the formulation of some grades of aviation gasoline such as 100LL (one hundred low lead), because the required octane rating would be technically infeasible to reach without the use of leaded additives.
1.2.2 Naphtha
Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene. Naphtha is volatile, flammable and have a specific gravity of about
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It is classified as acutely as well as inveterate toxic to aquatic life. In spite of its properties and its hazard potential a risk for the environment can be considered negligible. This is demonstrated in an exposure assessment that resulted in releases that do not pose a risk to the environment, but there are some disadvantages of using naphtha as alternative fuel, most uses of petroleum refinery naphtha require the removal of sulfur compounds down to very low levels (few parts per million or less), that is usually accomplished in a catalytic chemical process called hydride sulfurization which converts the sulfur compounds into hydrogen sulfide gas that is removed from the naphtha by distillation. Also low octane number for naphtha lead to difficulties in starting or bad engine operation,…show more content…
It is converted nearly all carbon fuels ( 99.5 percent ) in the liquefied petroleum gas to CO2 during the combustion process . This conversion is relatively independent of the composition of all. Although the formation of carbon dioxide and is working to reduce CO2 emissions , and the carbon dioxide emitted and trivial amount compared to the amount of CO2 produced. It does not convert the vast majority of the 0.5 percent of the carbon and CO2 for fuel because of incomplete combustion in the fuel stream . The formation of N2O is subject during the combustion process through a complex series of interactions and formation depends on many factors . It is minimized when the formation of N2O are kept high combustion temperatures ( above 1475οF, 802οC) and excess air is kept to a minimum (less than 1 percent ) . Methane emissions higher during periods of low combustion temperature or incomplete combustion . Normally, the conditions that are in favor of N2O are also in favor of CH4 emissions , [ 4, 5 ]

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