Advantages And Disadvantages Of Nanomedicine

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Introduction
Nanotechnology is a recently developed technique to produce nanoparticles. According to the definition from British Standards Institution, nanotechnology refers to the intentional design, characterization, production and applications of materials, structures, devices and systems by controlling their size and shape in the nanoscale range1. Nanotechnology covers versatile applications, such as medicine. Nanomedicine is defined as the field of medicine that aims to use the properties and physical characteristics of nanomaterials at the molecular level2. In general, nanomedicine exhibits tremendous advantages over conventional medicine. Therefore, it is widely applied for various purposes, for instances, diagnosis, prevention and treatment
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Polymer micelles consist of numerous block copolymers, which are amphiphilic in nature, meaning that one domain is hydrophobic while the other is hydrophilic11. The block copolymers can self-assemble in aqueous solution to form core-shell micelles. The hydrophobic segments are packed in the core. On the other hand, the hydrophilic segments are arranged as the shell. Similarly, the hydrophobic drugs can be entrapped in the inner core. Moreover, some targeting moieties can be attached to the shell surface to improve binding with target cells and cellular uptake12,13. Regarding the advantages, polymeric micelles enhance the water solubility of hydrophobic drugs in the body14. Thus, hydrophobic drugs can be transported to the target sites more efficiently. Due to the targeting moieties, most of the drug can be delivered to the affected sites. Ultimately, the therapeutic efficacy can be…show more content…
There are several advantages of using AuNPs for cancer diagnosis. Firstly, their sizes are tunable. The size of AuNPs can be adjusted to target tumors at different sites. Secondly, AuNPs are biocompatible and non-toxic. It is relatively safe to inject them intravenously for targeting purpose. The side effects can be minimized. Thirdly, AuNPs have a flexible surface functionalization. Specific targeting ligands can be attached to the surface to recognize tumors at the affected site. Besides, AuNPs can be coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to avoid immune system recognition20. Lastly, AuNPs also exhibit high X-ray attenuation21. Then, tumor tissues which are targeted by AuNPs can be obviously distinguished from normal tissues by X-ray. In short, AuNPs can be applied for diagnostic imaging with excellent
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