The legal minimum and maximum prices for goods and services are implemented by governments, in an effort to be able to manage the economy by direct intervention. Price ceilings and price floors are two types of price controls. The legal maximum of price for a good or service is a price ceiling and the legal minimum price of good or service is the price floor. The government may impose both a price ceiling and a price floor but typically only selects one for a specific good or service. Prices are formed by a free market when there is a balance between supply and demand of the good or service. When the legal price is different than that of the market price it will create either an excess in supply or an excess in demand. When a price ceiling is imposed it will create shortages, while having no effect on the quantity supplied. Shortages of goods and services cause consumers to compete robustly over the restricted supply. The shortages arrive from suppliers limiting the supply of goods and services due to the price ceiling, not allowing them to make a profit. The opposite holds true with price floors. Having a price floor creates an excess of goods and services and that allows suppliers to be more agreeable to supply. When price ceilings or price floors are implemented, this can lead to the creation of black markets and inefficient allocation to
there are a number of different buyers and sellers in the marketplace. This means that we have competition in the market, which allows price to change in response to changes in supply and demand. Furthermore, for almost every product there are substitutes, so if one product becomes too expensive, a buyer can choose a cheaper substitute instead. In a market with many buyers and sellers, both the consumer and the supplier have equal ability to influence price.
Because of the fewness of companies in this type of industry, which is typical of an oligopoly; they get to make their price. In the USA, the auto companies certainly do make their own price.
However, when the equilibrium price is beyond the expectation of a fair market value, for reasons of political or social concerns governments will intervene in the market and establish limits on such things as wages, apartment rents, electricity, or agricultural commodities. Government uses price ceilings and price floors to keep prices below or above market equilibrium. (Stone, 2012, page 68)
The future of the telecommunication industry is an exciting future. No longer can these companies depend on telephone service plans to maintain profit. Each company needs to find other avenues, packages and services that can be sold to existing customers while attracting new customers. The companies
The term cost behavior is used to describe whether a cost changes as output changes. In this case the costs are tightly shielded. In order to describe the cost behavior of the industry, we have to study the process that results in cost incurrence. Based on the information in the AT&T case, the industry features a high proportion of fixed costs in relation to acquiring spectrum and building a network. Variable costs are relatively low and, in the case of text messages, are very low. The cost structure in the wireless industry is dominated by fixed costs, so the
In the technologically driven world, economists take into account the degree of elasticity for both the early adopters and the late adopters. Due to lagged demand and network effects in these markets, firms have to follow certain pricing strategies. We will form an economic analysis on how these topics are related and what type of pricing strategies firms have to follow when these conditions are present.
market, there is price competition. This can lead to price wars and, therefore, lower prices for
Price fixing scenarios require two main ingredients to be effective for the companies that attempt them. First, the demand curve for the product or service in question must be sufficiently inelastic such that a decrease in production will raise the price enough to ensure a higher profit level. The second requirement for price fixing is that participating companies must combine for an effective monopoly of the market in question. If two relatively minor companies decide to raise their prices together, this will only result in the rest of the market taking additional share, and the conspirators losing money.
This is where industry regulations come. The regulations discourages the monopolies and oligopolies from charging unfair prices for their products.
3. The new system allows charging additional services required by the clients, generating more revenue. 4. Knowing which are the cost drivers , it will be possible to control costs more effectively (reducing fixed costs and increasing net margin) 5. Market analysis with direct competitor in the region suggests that studio prices are at least 21% lower and one bedroom suite prices are at least 40% lower than the competition in the new pricing model. Comparison with the general market suggests similar findings. MAIN REPORT
Generally a firm set “prices to attract new customers or profitably retain existing ones”(300). A firm could set prices low so that competition cannot enter the market or set prices at competitor’s level to keep the market constant. In the Trader’s Joe example, all of their prices are exceptionally low for high priced things even Trader Joe’s products can’t even be found anywhere else. This helps to eliminate competitors in an extraordinary
Potential or existing customers can consider product prices high, low or fair, thereby regulating the active demand for the products of the company.
Today’s highly competitive business world forces companies to create different tactics and relatively rely on multiple pricing strategies to conduct business.
If the business is a monopolist, then it has price-setting power. At the other extreme, if a firm