Advantages Of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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Adhesion studies Advantages of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an analytical technique that originated in the photoelectric effect, described by Einstein way back in 1905 [2]. Its measurements for characterization of solid surfaces are undertaken under vacuum conditions by retarding field methods. The application of the XPS techniques has several advantages as discussed in this topic. One of the advantages of this technique is that, the x-ray sources it employs, which include Al K (1486.6 eV) and Mg K (1253.6 eV) have very narrow x-ray lines below 0.9ev [1]. Therefore, this sources provide a good energy resolution hence making this technique applicable in many areas. Also, the electrons of the elements present in the solid surface are emitted at characteristic energies thus many elements can be identified easily. Moreover, XPS technique allows identification of all chemical states at any given element through quantification of the high resolution peaks [2].…show more content…
Normally, the probing depth is between 4nm to 10nm and may even go to 20nm, indicating that this technique is sensitive to both surface and near surface layers [4]. XPS is a relatively non-destructive method of sample characterization, which depends on the nature of the sample and the power operation of the X-ray tube. Also, it is effective in identifying elements and their chemical states on surfaces and in quantitative analysis [5]. Further, XPS is able to detect the variance in chemical state between different samples. Furthermore, the oxidations states of different molecules can be differentiated in this
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