Affirmative Action Policies Of The United States

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Diversity in the United States has been stymied due to the country’s legacy of slavery and subsequent successful efforts to legislate segregation of Blacks and Whites. At the beginning of the twentieth century, White legislative leaders sought laws to reflect the citizenry’s preference to discriminate, subordinate, and disenfranchise Black citizens. Segregation ordinances, poll taxes, and discriminatory practices of employers, educational institutions, and skill trade unions formed effective barriers to diversity proponents. This practice of exclusion reigned supreme. Fortunately, the nation has become more accepting of diversity in all phases of political and social life as the population grows increasingly more diverse.
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Is it reasonable to expect the benefits of preferential treatment, which is how many Whites in the United States began to define affirmative action, to outweigh its costs? The costs that are often cited include the losses of efficiency that occur when less-than-best-qualified applicants are chosen; another misconception that Whites began to embrace. The hostility and suspicion of the bypassed candidates who legitimately believe that their efforts and accomplishments have been ignored due to preferential treatment awarded Blacks and women. There are those in the political and social community who argue for the elimination of affirmative action requirements.
President John F. Kennedy made the first reference to “affirmative action” on March 6, 1961 when he issued Executive Order 10925 which created the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. The Executive Order also mandated that projects financed with federal funds "take affirmative action" to ensure that hiring and employment practices are free of racial bias. The efforts to establish affirmative action as a policy did not end with the death of President Kennedy. Kennedy’s successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson, is considered a champion of civil rights and a proponent of diversity within the United States. In 1967, Johnson expanded the Executive Order to include affirmative action requirements to benefit women. As the United States
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