During the Jacksonian period of 1824-1848, America had great economic development that played a role in making this period known as the “common man,” live up to its expectations. The Bank War was one of Andrew Jackson's many attempts to lower the power of the federal government. The Bank of the United States was ran by Nicholas Biddle, and issued federal deposits, credit and bank notes. However, the main issue was that it restrained the power of state banks. The soft-money and hard-money were two groups, that opposed the Bank. The
The bank symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution. The expansion of banking helped to finance the nation’s economic development. But many Americans, including Jackson, distrusted bankers as “non-producers” who contributed nothing to the nation’s wealth but profited from the labor of others. The tendency of banks to over-issue paper money, whose deterioration in value reduced the real income of wage earners, reinforced this conviction. Jackson himself had long believed the “hard money” -gold and silver-was the only honest currency. Nonetheless, when he assumed office there was little reason to believe that the Bank War would become the major event of his presidency.1 Page 388 of Give Me Liberty
The validity of President Andrew Jackson’s response to the Bank War issue has been contradicted by many, but his reasoning was supported by fact and inevitably beneficial to the country. Jackson’s primary involvement with the Second Bank of the United States arose during the suggested governmental re-chartering of the institution. It was during this period that the necessity and value of the Bank’s services were questioned.
Nicholas Biddle proved great opposition to President Jackson. He wanted to re-charter the National Bank; however, many people were against Biddle’s decision. This was particularly true of people in the west. They were still wary of a national bank, after the Panic of 1819, which involved mishaps in land speculation. Jackson shared the predominately western opinion that several small banks would be a better service to the nation than one, large bank would. A major problem with a national bank would lie in it’s willingness only to make loans to the wealthy. This would be of no use to the middleclass. Jackson would not allow Biddle to gain any more power than he already had.
Faced with this economic decline, came other factors that included unemployment and lack of confidence in banks (Church 100). Restoring faith in banks across the United States was one goal for FDR. As depositors lost confidence in the national bank, over $1,000,000,000 was taken out in cash and hoarded (Boardman 64). The Emergency Banking Act closed all banks for four straight days, and put them under inspection by the national government (Schraff 52). Banks were put under meticulous scrutiny by the Treasury Department. The U.S. government demanded that all hoarded gold be returned and all of the $1,000,000,000 was deposited (Boardman 65). Banks were allowed to open only under a strict system of licensing (Schraff 52). Another banking program was The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or FDIC, which was created by Congress to guarantee deposits up to $5000 (Gupta). In the case
The bank provided credit to growing enterprises, issued bank notes which served as a dependable medium of exchange throughout the country, and it exercised a restraining effect on the less well manages state banks. Nicholas Biddle, who ran the Bank, tried to put the institution on a sound and prosperous basis. But Andrew Jackson was always determined to destroy it (Brinkley, 249). The Bank had two opposition groups: the “soft-money” faction and the “hard-money” faction. Soft money advocates objected to the Bank of the United States because it restrained the state banks from issuing notes freely. Hard money advocates believed that coin was the only safe currency, and they condemned all banks that issued bank notes.
He believed that the Bank has to be abolished due to several reasons. First of all, the bank concentrated the nation's wealth in a single institution which created an unhealthy for the economy monopoly. Second of all, he believed that the bank favored the wealthy over the common people. The third reason was that the bank had too much control over members of Congress. In other words, the subsidy of the bank to one particular party or the lack of the finance could influence the results of the elections at some point. And the bank also favored northeastern states over southern and western states. Thus, Jackson succeeded in destroying the Bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833. This action led to federal money being put into state banks who then loaned it out freely leading to inflation. State banks were issuing paper banknotes that were not backed by gold or silver reserves which led to rapid inflation. Moreover, the expansion of credit and speculation took place. As a result, state banks collapsed which was a cause of the Panic of 1837. However, despite the crisis and depression, the liquidation of the Bank was an achievement of Jackson’s presidency and led to trivial of the economy later on.
The Bank of the United States was designed to make money and build an economy. It was designed by men like Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris, but did not benefit the common citizen as much as wealthy investors. Why did a fledgling government need to borrow millions from overseas in order to invest in a “national” bank, to turn around and then borrow the same money back and pay interest on it? The banking system developed by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris was prime pickings for speculators, and laid the groundwork for a history of unscrupulous activity regarding our nation’s money supply that continues to this day. The signatures on the Constitution were barely dry before corruption and
Fortunately, J.P. Morgan, the exorbitantly rich New York businessman came to the aid of the financial system. He organized a group of bankers who shifted their funds to the failing banks. Depositors were assured their savings were protected and could be withdrawn whenever they wanted. The demand subsided and
Jackson attacked directly to he considered a "monster" that controlled the state banks, making it particularly odious to the most powerful groups in the country, both Southerners and Northerners. He accused the Bank of unconstitutional and unnecessary, particularly pointing to its president, Nichollas Biddle, as the culprit and cause of the corruption of political life and to be an instrument in the hands of the aristocracy of money, and putting people monetary ring and oppress the working class. Once he got his electoral victory, Jackson accelerated the dissolution of the Bank, which was held in the summer of 1834; It was reorganized as a state bank more under the laws of the State of Pennsylvania. Most US analysts are of the opinion that the real reason for the dissolution of the Bank was none other than Jackson had the support of Wall Street banks, whose main objective was to get rid of any annoying that could hinder competition their lucrative businesses, and financial oligarchy of the country, annoyed by the fiscal control exercised by the National Bank's business and commercial transactions with
On many accounts people look back on Andrew Jackson and applaud his terms as president. But those people do not look closer into his term on the huge mistake he made. To appeal his personal feelings and not for the greater good of the country, president Jackson vetoed the bill that would renew the Bank of the United States (BUS) in 1832. Because of this veto, state banks were unleashed from their restrictions and given the freedom they craved so badly. “He believed the financial sector of the American economy was spoiled, corrupt and bad for the overall health of the nation, and so he destroyed, at great length, great drama and great cost, the Bank of the United States."1 Due to many experiences brought up with him, Andrew Jackson failed
This paper will account for the saga of the American President Andrew Jackson and his battles with the United States banking industry, most notably the Second Bank of the United States, and how President Jackson’s actions were a justified necessary evil. This paper will illustrate the specific battle President Jackson had with the second National Bank of America and how, like many battles President Jackson had as a general, was chosen wisely.
The banking industry as a whole after the stock market crashed was going bankrupt due to not being able to carry the “bad debt” that was created from using customer money to buy stock. Because the banks were out of money, they were unable to cover customer withdrawals from their bank, causing many bank customers to lose all of their savings. With the uncertainty of the future of the banking industry, many people withdrew all of their savings, which caused more than 9,000 banks to close their doors and go out of business (Kelly). Due to the effects of the Great Depression, and the collapse of the banking industry, the government created regulations to prevent similar failure in the future. For Example, the SEC, (or Securities Exchange Commission), which regulates the sell and trade of stocks, bonds and other investments was created as a result of The Great Depression. The FDIC (or Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation), was created to insure bank accounts so that that the consumer would be protected if the bank were to go out of business (Kelly). The Great Depression's effect on the banking industry led to many useful changes to the banking industry and helped restore confidence in banks in the American people.
The stock of the bank was bought and held mainly by the US government and numerous businessmen among the states of the Union. It paid interest on public debt, issue a national currency, dealt in foreign exchange, paid government officials, and numerous other tasks. It was both a private and public institution but if asked by the Treasury, it would have to open its books to inspection.