Race-based medications seem highly personalized to the consumer but are simply a short cut to the goal of individually-specific medication. Marketing drugs targeted at particular phenotypes such as race is incredibly lucrative for pharmaceutical companies. For NitroMed, this factor will be especially important because African Americans have far higher cases of hypertension than whites while tending to be less responsive to normal treatments than their white counterparts.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major health condition which affects many Americans. This health condition may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A normal blood pressure consists of systolic blood pressure divided by diastolic blood pressure, 120/80mmHg (millimeters of mercury). High blood pressure is defined as systolic pressure which is greater than 140mm Hg, and diastolic pressure which is over 90mm Hg. Hypertension influences the health outcomes of black Americans more than other races in the United States. Racial discrimination and socioeconomic status are two major factors which influence the rate of high blood pressure in the black American population.
Heart disease is the number one killer of women and the leading cause of death in African-American women.1 African-American women have higher rates of heart disease with earlier onset and more severe complications than women from other ethnicities. A common strategy to address the increase incidence of heart disease in African-American females is by changing their behavioral attitudes towards diet and physical activity. The Heart Truth, a science-based health education program launched in 2002, sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), a part of the National Institutes of Health, helps increase awareness about heart disease and its risk factors in women.2 It also aims at educating and motivating the women to take action
The World Health Center Organization has identified depression as the fourth leading cause of total disease burden and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Research has focused on the role of socioeconomic status and the environmental risk of the underlying cause of these disparities in depression diagnosis and treatment. Research has also proven that African American women have lower rates of diagnosis, treatment, and control of hypertension compared to non-hispanics. Women are twice as likely as men to experience
Socioeconomic status is a health disparity in the United States. In 2012, McHenry concluded that there are approximately 84,000 preventable deaths that occur each year. Although the ACA has provided accessible health care to many people that would otherwise not be able to afford health insurance there still is a large population uninsured (Brown & Divenere, 2017). African Americans have a high prevalence of
Based on experience, many African Americans perceived receiving health care as an undignified, demeaning, degrating and humiliating experience. Most even resent clinics because of the medical jargon, the long waits, they feel segragated against. loss of their Often the lack of transportation, poverty, non- compliance with previously prescribed medicines also act as barrier for African Americans seeking health care.
hough freed from slavery over a century ago, African Americans and other minority groups are still enslaved by America’s rigid race classifications and assumptions. It is a fact that White Americans are significantly more healthy than African Americans, Asian American, Hispanics, and other minorities (HHS). For example, hypertension, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney failure, is 12.2% higher among African American men than white men, and 16% more for African American Women (“Health”). This health gap has resulted in debates on whether these disparities are due to genetics or social factors, and whether or not race should be a factor in health care treatments. According the American Anthropology Association,
The community used in this project is Prince Georges County Maryland. The population of interest used will include African American Males and Females ages 18 and above. This project is about organizing a health fair in Prince Georges County in which the selected population was educated about health care outcomes for high blood pressure; diabetes and obesity. Majority of the populace who attended the fair were either low income residents or uninsured. Diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure is known to have increased risk of stroke and heart disease (Sowers, Epstein, & Frohlich, 2001). Hypertension in African American population is considered to be highest across the globe as compared to white population. It is a silent killer as it
Health disparities among African-Americans is a continuing problem that has been seen over many years. African-Americans have higher poverty rates, have lower rates of insurance coverage, and are more likely to be covered by Medicaid, than the White population (Copeland, 2005). This lack of insurance has led many of these individuals, to not seek treatment for illness, due to problem accessing health care (Kennedy, 2013). This leaves African-Americans with little to no treatment, which causes an increase of medical care that will be needed further on in their life or a sooner than expected death, caused by illness (Copeland, 2005).
“researchers have repeatedly documented racial and ethnic differences in access to invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for heart disease and stroke. Study findings have consistently indicated that African Americans are less likely to receive pharmacological therapy, diagnostic angiography and catheterization, and invasive surgical treatments for heart disease and stroke relative to white Americans with similar clinical disease characteristics (2000).”
The American Medical Journal explains that the heart disease is one of the deadliest medical conditions. Medical experts reckon that heart disease is a lifestyle disease, which emanates from excessive consumption of the wrong dietary combination. Foods such as fats and carbohydrates often expose individuals to the threat of heart disease. Consuming fast foods from McDonalds also expose people to the threat of heart disease. The most plausible means of mitigating the risk of contacting heart disease is by observing dietary combination. Individuals must keep a balanced diet always in order to avoid dietary concerns later on in life. The most common symptoms include chest discomfort, nausea, trouble sleeping, breathing problems, and unusual tiredness.
The risks of getting those diseases are even higher for African Americans.” (American Heart Association). High blood pressure and obesity are the common conditions that increase a heart disease. High blood pressure is a condition in which the blood flow is abnormally higher than usual in the arteries. “Nearly 42% percent black men and 45% black women of twenty years and older have high blood pressure” (DeNoon). Researchers may have found a gene in blacks that make them more sensitive to salt, which in the long run increases the risk of high blood pressure. Obesity in african americans is more common as well, which increases the risk of heart disease. 63% of black men and 77% of black women are overweight or obese. A solution for high blood pressure and obesity is a healthy diet and exercise. It won’t only reduce the chances of getting these conditions but also reduce the chances of a heart disease or a
It is a cliché of health education that programs and interventions will be more effective when they are culturally appropriate for the populations they serve. In practice, however, the strategies used to achieve cultural appropriateness vary widely. This paper briefly describes African American history and how it relates to health care services. It explains the culture, value and belief of African American when it involves health promotion and disease prevention. Some major health concerns and barriers are noted within the black communities and population
Factors that contribute to hypertension are age, ethnicity, gender, and lifestyles as shown in Figure 1 (Yoon, Burt, Louis, & Carroll, 2012). While the prevalence of hypertension is relatively equal among men and women, certain ethnicities have a higher propensity for developing hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension in African-Americans is among the highest in the United States for a single ethnic group (Ferdinand & Armani, 2007). In the United States, around 78% of people suffering from hypertension are aware of their condition, with only 68% using hypertensive medications to control their blood
According to the office of the minority health, approximately 48% of African American women and 44% of African American men suffer from some form of the cardiovascular disease which includes heart disease and stroke and adults are 40 percent more likely to have high blood pressure while the women are 1.6 times more likely to die from heart diseases and complications than other ethnic groups (The Office of Minority Health, 2016).