African Americans During The Nineteenth Century

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During the nineteenth century, minority groups such as African Americans, Chinese, Mexicans, and Native Americans faced new struggles through means of oppression. Each of these minority groups handled this oppression differently because they each had very different experiences. Whether they came willingly, unwillingly, or were being pushed out of their own land, they were all treated as inferior by whites. To fight the oppression they were facing, they all created communities, fostered a sense of strength and independence, and used that to fight back.
Since African Americans were brought to the United States unwillingly, their experience was based on both trying to be free from slavery in the South and trying to fit in in Northern society. African Americans who were enslaved used tactics to escape more easily. White slaveowners had a stereotyped image of their slaves as being Sambo, a caricature of a stupid and perpetually happy black man. Many runaway slaves “had seemed passive and cheerful before they escaped” (Takaki 107). Another way African American slaves could gain independence was through the hiring-out system, where they were able to work in cities as long as they made payments to the slaveowners on a weekly basis (Takaki 109). It made a lot of people more aware of the outside world and of their capabilities to be free men (Takaki 110). For free African Americans, community was formed through the black nationalism movement. Martin Delany was outraged
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