African Migrations Up to the 19th Century

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Migrations have taken place by slaves and by free people of sub-Saharan Africa for over seventy thousand years, beginning with the tropical areas of the Old World and followed by Eurasia and the Americas. These migrations, or Diasporas, began with religious voyages and cultural exchanges and evolved to the slave trade and the deportation of black men, women and children to new colonies as workers and servants. Long before the Atlantic slave trade grew, merchants from Greece and the Roman Empire traveled to the East African coast. Patrick Manning points out in, African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, that migrants came from southern Arabia to Eretria and Ethiopia in the first millennium BCE (Manning 36). As time went on, contacts…show more content…
By 1850, this demand grew to approximately 120,000 slave exports per year (Manning 97). The captured slaves had many stops along their way to their new owners. In his video African Slave Trail, Ghana (pt 1), Paul Williams records many of these places and describes what happened to the captured Africans at each location. RACE According to Manning, "This story of black people in the modern world acknowledges but does not advocate the concept of "race" (Manning 12). For Manning, the history of black people is the history of black community. He proposes that one way to look at racial difference is color. Another way is biological difference. A third is religious belief and a fourth is purity of blood. All four of these contribute to our sense of "us" or "them." This sense of us or them feeds the concept of racism and is not contained to only one element. While one may at color, someone else may consider religion. Examples of all of Manning's four elements exist in history. For example, people, who consider Jews to be different, typically focus of religious beliefs while people consider blacks to be different due to their skin color or hair. Race was certainly a consideration when it came to enslaving Africans. RACIAL HIERARCHY In addition to categorizing people by the four elements described, groups are often ranked using one or all of these elements. Manning thoughtfully explains that historian Frank Snowden, after studying blacks in Greek and Roman
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