Age, Rate and Eventual Attainment in Second Language Acquisition

3141 WordsMar 10, 201313 Pages
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) Age, Rate and Eventual Attainment in Second Language Acquisition Author(s): Stephen D. Krashen, Michael A. Long and Robin C. Scarcella Reviewed work(s): Source: TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec., 1979), pp. 573-582 Published by: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3586451 . Accessed: 09/01/2013 08:48 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a…show more content…
Distinguishingrate in and attainment, then,resolvesthe apparent contradictions the literature. In order to provide support for these generalizations,we examined inof in in vestigations child-adultdifferences eventual attainment second language studieswhich compare childrenand adults acquiring and short-term acquisition as naturalenvironments, well as formal, classroom second languages in informal, environments. I. Investigationsof Eventual Attainment:Long Term Studies There have been surprisingly few studies investigating child-adultdifferences in eventual attainmentin second language acquisition. The available studies all concur,however,that age of arrival in the countrywhere the language is spoken is the best predictorof eventual attainment:1) those who and 2) arrive as children attain higher levels of second language proficiency, aftera certainperiod (see discussionbelow) lengthof residence (where length of residence taps linguisticinteraction/input) not a factor.(see Table 1)3 is 2. Investigationsof Rate: Short-term Studies 2.1. Comparisonsof Adult/ChildDifferences. The short-term studies comparing children and adults (see Table 2) show adults to be superior to childrenin rate. Treatmentor length of residencyin these studies
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