Alienation And Individualism : The Social Structures Through Industrialization And The Division Of Labour

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Both concepts of alienation and anomie signify how individualism has impacted the social structures through industrialization and the division of labour. Both Marx and Durkheim’s theories emphasize the relationships between people in society and how this impacts on separateness and individualism within it; however, both theories are different. Where Marx is concerned he focuses on being alienated as a result of materialized matter through the bourgeoisie alienating oneself from culture, for Durkheim anomie is due to the lack of a collective conscience within society preventing both regulation and integration of culture; for Durkheim this negatively impacts on social solidarity and cohesion. Alienation occurred after the periods of slavery and serfdom arose a capitalist society, workers selling their labour skills in order to earn a living wage. In comparison to feudal societies where wealth was inherited, capitalist societies through the bourgeoisie was about owning the means of production enabling them to own private property and this being wealth. However, the cost price of the goods produced was significantly higher than the labourer’s wages resulting in a profit for the bourgeoisie, this being the method of attaining wealth. The capitalist mode of production generates its wealth through exploitation of the proletariat. Karl Marx (1970) stated ‘…the accumulation of wealth at one pole of society involves a simultaneous accumulation of poverty, labour torment, slavery,

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