Alternative Learning System

3522 Words Feb 24th, 2012 15 Pages

Theoretical Framework

This chapter presents the relevant theory, related literature, related studies, conceptual framework, hypothesis and definition of terms used in the study.

Relevant Theory

Behaviorism as a theory was primarily developed by B. F. Skinner. It loosely encompasses the work of people like Edward Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. What characterizes these investigators are their underlying assumptions about the process of learning. In essence, three basic assumptions are held to be true.[original research?] First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity
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The major difference between gestaltists and behaviorists is the locus of control over the learning activity: the individual learner is more key to gestaltists than the environment that behaviorists emphasize.
Once memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model[5] and Baddeley's working memory model[6] were established as a theoretical framework in cognitive psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Today, researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load and information processing theory. These theories of learning play a role in influencing instructional design.[7] Aspects of cognitivism can be found in learning how to learn, social role acquisition, intelligence, learning, and memory as related to age.
Educators employing a cognitivist approach to learning would view learning as internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory, perception) where in order to develop learner capacity and skills to improve learning, the educator structures content of learning activities to focus on building intelligence and cognitive and meta-cognitive development Constructivism
Main article: Constructivism (learning theory)
The learning theories of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky and John Dewey serve as the foundation of constructivist learning theory.[8] Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts
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