Chapter 21 Question 2: What key issues and events led the federal government to intervene in the civil rights movement? What were the major pieces of legislation enacted, and how did they dismantle legalized segregation?
The 50s, 60s and 70s were a tumultuous time in American society. Roles were constantly being redefined. Events like the war created upheaval in the lives of many individuals and everyone was scrambling to find his or her place in society. The same was profoundly true for blacks in America. No societal movement had a more profound effect on the lives of Black Americans than did the Civil Rights Movement. The status of Black Americans would be redefined to a revolutionary degree. Civil rights leaders including Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X would bring the cause to the national stage. Although the movement was plagued with violence and death, it was eventually successful. The South was radically changed from a society of
“Corporations are said to be “creatures of statute;” they exist because state laws allow human beings to organize themselves into entities that separate ownership and management functions as the outline above delineates. The business rule is there a presumption that making a business decision, the offices act in good faith with the belief that their actions is what is best for the company (Halbert/Ingulli, 2012 pg. 31).”
Throughout America’s very eventful history, African Americans have been ridiculed and treated with injustice as well as, the hardships endured with slavery. African Americans were and still to this day are victims of discrimination, police brutality and other hate crimes from white African Americans. Even during these times, many African Americans remanded strong while dreaming of equality in the United States. The Civil Rights movement was a time in America were African Americans took a stand to the racism they underwent on a daily basis. When people hear “Civil Rights movement” they most likely think about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, Rosa Parks, or Malcolm X.
The concept of rights and liberties worldwide is a luxury that all countries do not have and are not given to them. In America the people have the Constitution and the Bill of Rights that enumerate their inalienable rights. In the State of Texas there is also a constitution and a Bill of Rights for the people. One of the most important rights in the Texas Bill of Rights in the constitution is Article 1 Section 3 and 3a titled Equality and Equality Under the Law.
The education system in the mid-twentieth south was tremendously violent and hard for many African Americans. Not only did they have to fight for basic human rights, and equality, but they had to fight for the right to learn. The schools discriminated against them and weren 't accepting in anyway. They were not only targeting the students seeking knowledge, but the educators who attempted to teach them. Educators caught teaching a black student, would be prosecuted, threatened, or even murdered. May schools were persuaded to not teach those of color. The school system was fully corrupt and unfair to African Americans and preserved the status quo. In the life of Anne Moody, she was tormented and scorn for an education.
Up to the present time, the civil rights movement is a campaign that has been in play for a while. Over several years, different laws have been fabricated to shape a society that has more civil rights. Court cases have taken place that have caused the supreme courts to change laws. Quite a few Supreme Court cases have majorly impacted the civil rights movement: Dred Scott v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, and Brown v. Board of Education.
Civil rights and the civil rights movement are very important because it is not right and it is unconstitutional to discriminate against someone based on what color their skin is, what religion they have, what country they came from, or any other reason that they did not choose. It is important to remember the bad times of our country so we can make sure nothing like that happens again. Reading about all the civil rights activists, inspires me to stand up for what I believe in and to help those causes. For instance, Rosa Parks, a civil rights leader, stood up for what she believed in and ended up going to jail. This made her work even harder to stop bus segregation. Martin Luther King Jr. went even farther than going to jail, he was shot and killed after bus segregation ended.
The American declaration of independence stated, that: “All men are created equal”. But in the 19th century only whites were born with equal opportunities. Africans were imported as slaves and had to work on the fields of the whites. Until 1865 the Negroes were treated and looked at as something lower than human. They were compared to apes, and therefore just owned the same rights as animals. They were raised believing that whites were superior. It took them years to realize that they have to stand up for their rights. The uprising turned into a brutal civil war.
Owning a business, any business, gives an average family the advantage of having a flow of stable income as to families whom income is acquired from part time or full time jobs, especially if it is a corporation. A corporation is an independent legal entity owned by shareholders. This means that the corporation itself, not the shareholders that own it, is held legally liable for the actions and debts the business incurs. Corporations are more complex than other business structures because they tend to have costly administrative fees and complex tax and legal requirements. Due to these issues, corporations are generally suggested for established, larger companies with multiple employees. Corporations offer the ability to sell ownership shares in the business through stock offerings. Although sounding attractive, corporations are not all good to others besides the business itself. Corporations have an abducting amount of authority, overpowering many businesses, releasing excessive pollution, and affecting the planet and nations health tremendously.
A very direct consequence which arises with the concept of separate legal identity of a corporation is the misuse of it by people. In reality a company is nothing but an association of persons, who are its beneficiaries, governed by the
Human beings are commonly legal person but humanity is a state of nature which may be or not be deliberated. In the eighteenth century business relations were considered to be contracted between “real” persons, whereas after that time legal relationships had been extended to relations between companies, considered as separate legal personality. In company law it has been held that a company is considered as a separate legal entity holding its own assets, debts and equities. Prior to 1840s a company had to be incorporated from Royal Charter or by the Parliament. However, during that time British Empire was facing high high competition from other European countries. While the vast majority of British companies were in the hand of family enterprises America was growing companies such as J.P Morgan. While Britain had the ability to compete, the bureaucracies forming a firm was crushing the national economic development. Salomon vs Salomon & Co became an important part and a decisive revolution of company law since 1897. This principle determines that a company’s assets belongs to it and not to its directors or other parties involved and is responsible for its own debts and liabilities. Thus, shareholders and directors are not liable for paying back creditors in event of liquidation. The separate legal personality of a company signifies one of the most vital principles of company law which was first established by the House of Lords in Salomon case. This case defines the legal
Company law (also be referred to as the law of business associations) can be described as the field of law concerned with the daily running of companies as well as business organizations. It entails partnerships, corporations as well as some of the associations that always deal in economic or charitable activity. Corporations are the highly prominent kinds of companies, they have separate legal personality and its investors have limited liability for whichever losses that occur in the company that is governed by corporate law. Companies that are widely spread with great monopoly are always listed publicly on the stock exchanges in all part of the world. Depending on the form, single individuals who are referred to as sole traders also have the opportunity to incorporate themselves and limit their ability so that they have the chance of continuing with the business. These various forms of companies rely on the particular law of their countries or the country of its location.
The concept of a company being a separate legal entity is the most striking illustration in separating the company from its owners. A paramount principle of corporate law is that no shareholder or member of a company is made liable for the obligations incurred by such incorporations A company is different from its members in the eyes of law. In continuations to this the opposite also holds true in the sense that neither can the company be held liable for the acts of its members. It is a fundamental distinction that a company is distinct from its members.