In this day and age, drugs are being prescribed without hesitation. In fact, many of these drugs are being prescribed for children with various disorders. One of these disorders is called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). An estimated five to ten percent of children are diagnosed with this syndrome (Taylor 11). One of the methods to treat this disorder is to use stimulants, specifically Ritalin. This method is controversial because it has many side effects and its long-term effects are unknown. It can also lead to addiction. Approximately two to three percent of elementary school children are taking some kind of stimulant to treat ADHD (Taylor 64). Since so many children are taking this medication, new problems have arisen.
Talbot describes the uses of the stimulates to stay awake to power through long nights to complete papers or deadlines, as well as to take lengthy exams (2009). Several testimonials are provides in “Brain Gain” of students that use Adderall for these very reasons in their schooling career (Talbot, 2009). Using the stimulate has led to abuse problems by the users, leading them to experience harsh side effects such as lack of appetite and loss of sleep (Talbot, 2009). Talbot (2009) mentions the label on the amphetamine warns of a “high potential for abuse” for the user! The author emphasizes the growing and evident issue of Adderall being taken for nonmedical reasons to act as a quick fix for those needing an enhancement to their cognitive abilities (Talbot,
The use of stimulant medications such as Ritalin or Adderall in children with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to rise, albeit at a slower pace than in previous decades, a new study finds. The study authors tracked data on prescription in the US 1996 to 2008. They found that the use of drugs for ADHD was higher among children of 6-12 years and increased slightly from 4.2 percent in 1996 to 5.1 percent twelve years later. However, increase more pronounced occurred in older children, ages 13 and 18. In this group, the ADHD drugs increased more than double, from 2.3 percent in 1996 to 4.9 percent in 2008. The researchers said this reflects a greater understanding
They also claim that the full side effects of ADHD medication are still not known and could have harmful long- lasting side effects on the children taking the medications. The principle of beneficence must be applied by balancing the benefits the medication provides to those with ADHD along with the risks of possible side effects and that people, particularly children, that are not diagnosed with this disorder will be taking the medication. ADHD, or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Ritalin is currently prescribed to approximately six million people in the US. Of those six million, 75% of these are children for ADHD (nimh.nih.gov). Ritalin is a drug that stimulates the central nervous system. It interacts with chemicals in the brain and nerves that give way to hyperactivity and impulse control. There is another drug that given just as Ritalin, and it is called Adderall. Adderall is almost the exact same as Ritalin except it actually enters the cell and helps it produce more
Adderall is prescription drug that is a derivative of two forms of Amphetamine: l-amphetamines and d-amphetamines, the latter being the larger portion (makes up 75%) as well as the more potent of the two . Amphetamine (then called Benzedrine ) was first synthesized in the early 1900’s through a serendipitous discovery while searching for a cheaper substitute of another drug called ephedrine. The chemist who discovered this new drug, G.A Alles, then conducted experiments and found that this new drug was powerful stimulant. As a result, it was introduced to the public in 1935. It was advertised as a treatment for narcolepsy, mild depression, post-encephalitic Parkinson and later as an appetite suppressant. Reports of improvement in intelligence
“The figures showed that an estimated 6.4 million children ages 4 through 17 had received an A.D.H.D. diagnosis at some point in their lives, a 16 percent increase since 2007 and a 41 percent rise in the past decade. About two-thirds of those with a current diagnosis receive prescriptions for stimulants like Ritalin or Adderall, which can drastically improve the lives of those with A.D.H.D. but can also lead to addiction, anxiety and occasionally psychosis.” (Schwarz) These increasing rates at which Adderall and other stimulants are being prescribed are contributing to the pills availability
Arria, Amelia, Ph.D. "Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants What College Administrators, Parents, and Students Need to Know." Center on Young Adult Health and Development, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
One of the most shocking things that I learned is that Adderall is a stimulant. I knew that Adderall has an amphetamine base, however, I never made the connection. I know several people from my past and now that take Adderall, some without a prescription. Knowing that Adderall is a stimulant makes it seem entirely more dangerous than I saw it before. Adderall is a common drug now, people of all ages are consumers. Adderall is so common, legally and illegally, that I am sure most people are unaware of the interactions it can cause with other drugs. Adderall is generally viewed as a harmless drug for ADD and ADHA, but when you look at it from the perspective of having amphetamine in it, it appears much more dangerous.
Seven out of 10 college students say it is pretty easy to get stimulants without a prescription, according to a new survey conducted on eight U.S. campuses. A majority (83 percent) received them from friends and most said they used the drug to help them study or improve their grades. Overall, one in four undergraduates reported that they used prescription pain medications, sedatives or stimulants for nonmedical reasons in their lifetimes, said Anne McDaniel, author of the study and associate director of research and data management at The Ohio State University's Center for the Study of Student Life. One in four undergraduates reported that they used prescription pain medications, sedatives or stimulants for nonmedical reasons in their lifetimes.
There are a variety of age who uses this drugs, ranging from 12 to 70. There are report about adolescents abusing this drugs, from 8th grade to 10th and 12th grade. The numbers of 10th and 12th grade users have been dropped significantly since the introduction of this drug in the U.S. But the 8th grade users have stayed the same throughout the years. However, there is a significant decrease amount of users every years since the introduction of methamphetamine in the 1950’s-1960’s
Adderall’s are a form of amphetamine. They are used only in a few countries, which include the United States and Canada, to mainly treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Narcolepsy and Depression. Adderall’s are accessible in two different forms: instant release and extended release, Adderall IR and Adderall XR, respectively. The difference between the two is how the actual pill is made, the extended release one is made of plastic which extends the process in which the Adderall treats the body. On the other hand, the instant release one treats the body instantly, which requires the body to take more doses of it. In other words, patients with a more severe case of ADHD, Narcolepsy and/or depression take Adderall IR. ADHD is a brain disorder that creates a pattern of inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity that gets in the way of the patients functioning and development (National Institute of Mental Health, 1). Narcolepsy on the other hand is a, “neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness” (Web MD). A patient who is diagnosed with narcolepsy could suffer from excessive sleepiness. Other symptoms include Cataplexy, Hallucinations and Sleep Paralysis. Patients diagnosed with depression also get treated with Adderall’s. “Depression is a chronic mood disorder that causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities” (National Institute of Mental Health, 2). This topic has much importance in the field
Although the driver of a favorable risk-benefit, they carry potential risks for children using them. Appetite suppression and weight loss is usually about side effects. Sudden death has been reported in children using stimulant. A thorough history and physical examination with emphasis on the identification of risk factors for sudden death exist before starting stimulant medications. However, no routine screening electrocardiogram and heart specialist advice is
The medical use of amphetamines was common in the 1950/60's when they were used to help cure depression and to help the user lose weight. An amphetamine is a drug that is a stimulant to the central nervous system. Amphetamines are colorless and may be inhaled, injected, or swallowed. Amphetamines are also used non-medically to avoid sleep, improve athletic performance, or to counter the effects of depressant drugs. Amphetamines are addictive. Because of this, when the user discontinues use or reduces the amount that they use, withdrawal symptoms may occur. Some withdrawal symptoms are as follows: severe exhaustion, deep sleep lasting from 24 to 48 hours, psychotic reaction, extreme hunger, deep depression, anxiety reactions, and long but
Stimulant medication could be the miracle drug, or the most harmful thing to hit the younger generations. Medications such as Adderall and Ritalin are playing a prominent role in many adolescents’ lives, or the lives of people close to them. There is an “underground market” for medications like these, and the market is growing quickly. Whether just to make sure they pass that next test, or if they really believe they need it, stimulants’ popularity is soaring, and not just among adolescents but doctors as well. Stimulant medication / therapy is being prescribed at a growing rate, leading to many cases of misuse and diversion that can severely affect the users entire life, and play a very unclear part in any other substance abuse they
Stimulant medications are usually prescribed to treat individuals who have been diagnosed with ADHD. All prescription stimulants work by increasing dopamine levels in the brain. Dopamine is classified as a neurotransmitter, or more simply as a brain chemical. It is involved in movement, pleasure and attention. Stimulants produce a therapeutic effect by slowly and gradually increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain ("Drugfacts: Stimulant ADHD," 2009). When taken as prescribed, the dopamine gradually increases in a way that is very similar to that of the natural release that occurs in the human brain. When prescribed, doctors normally start the patient on a low dose. Slowly they will increase the amount prescribed until the natural-like therapeutic effect is reached. When the dosage is increased in a rapid manner, the release of dopamine becomes overwhelming which can lead to euphoria and addiction (2009).