Amphetamine: A Summary And Analysis

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Amphetamine is one of the most potent sympathomimetic drugs, causing effects by raising levels of the biogenic amines, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, through multiple mechanisms within the body (Berman, Steven M. et al 2009). Amphetamine based nervous stimulants such as Adderall ®, Concerta ®, Ritalin ®, and Dexedrine ® are commonly prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and narcolepsy (McCabe and West 2013). In 1991, fewer than 500,000 annual prescriptions were written for amphetamine in the US, but prescriptions for amphetamine grossed over eight million in 2000. (Berman, Steven M. et al 2009). In nine years, the number of prescribed amphetamine grew by 1600% and is continually growing. The…show more content…
Among 18-25 year old, non-prescribed usage increased significantly from 3.6% in 2000 to 5.4% by 2006 (Lakhan and Kirchgessner 2012). Dr. McCabe and Dr. West of the University of Michigan concluded in their 2013 representative sample of 4,572 high school seniors that about 1 in every 6 high school seniors in the United States has ever had some exposure to prescription stimulants either medically or non- medically(McCabe and West 2013). The reason for the increasing popularity of the drug can found in its ability to improve attention, allow for the user to focus, achieve a state of ecstasy, and stress relief. In 2008, 243 surveys received from dental education institutions in the United States found that 12.4 percent of these dental college students used a prescrip¬tion stimulant non-medically and, of those, 70 percent took it to improve attention and/or concentration. (McNiel and Muzzin et al. 2011). To achieve its greatest pharmacological effect, the maximum quan¬tity of drug must be delivered into the CNS in the shortest possible time, which causes drug abusers to progress from relatively safe methods of administration, such as oral ingestion, to dangerous routes, for example snort¬ing cocaine or intra¬venous injection (Heal, David J et al. 2013). Unsafe methods could lead to exchange of other diseases, such…show more content…
Nervous based stimulants can increase depression, increase mental illness, cause psychosis, lower sensory perception, impair of memory performance, cause cardiovascular difficulties, and lower the brain’s ability to transport and receive dopamine. Amphetamine based nervous stimulants should be properly used as prescribed by one’s doctor to help avoid any harmful effects. Chronic use of the drugs may cause the need to have rehabilitation and follow psychotherapeutic measures. As more are prescribed with amphetamines, it increases the need to develop protective measures to prevent chronic
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