Amputations have and always will be a part of international life. From the gruesome details of amputations in the early ages to the civilized and innovative amputations today. There are many myths and fears that follow amputation. Some of the fears are about life after amputation and how to obtain the proper prostheses and physical therapy. The evolution of amputation asserts the changes in this type of surgery and the advances in prosthesis so that the general public can understand the breakthroughs that have been made in this gruesome surgery.
In the world today, people are either praised or discriminated about their differences. Whether it be a man’s tattoo on his arm, a woman’s overly stretched ears, or even our own sexual orientations. What some people don’t realise, is that some of these modifications such as gauged ears, and tattoos are actually traditions in several tribes in continents such as Africa, South America, and Asia. If these people can see these modifications as bravery, traditions, or symbols of beauty, or even then why can’t everyone see them the same way, or in fact not see them at all. If someone’s body is different than yours and you don’t necessarily like the physical differences they have, is it really a plausible reason to make a comment, or even decline
Chapter One details the ancestry of frogs and examines the timeline of amphibians on Earth, as well as the increase in frog extinction rate. Kolbert argues that the observed extinction rates which are exceeding expected background extinction rates suggest that catastrophe is ahead for Earth. Humans are key to the extinction of Panamanian frogs due to their spreading of the Chtrid fungus, which is not native to Panama. Thus, Kolbert sees humans
SnoLab is studying these effects on various organisms in two phases. The first phase is the effects of radiation absence on lake whitefish embryos. They chose these embryos because of their development period and the easy nature of raising them. The embryos are kept in two fridges of different temperature both underground and above
Many sources say that the initial spread of this invasive species began at the end of the 1800's when bullfrogs were shipped to California to fill hungry loggers appetite for frog legs. The frogs competed with the other native species with the supply of natural resources while also consuming and exploiting the native amphibian species as well. Worldwide Rana catesbeiana has driven over one-hundred native species of frogs to extinction (Save The Frogs! et al. 2013). This is a huge impact on amphibian wildlife worldwide because there are about 4,800 species of frogs. Over the past hundred years the bullfrog has wiped out over 2% of the world's species of frogs. Studies have shown one of the reasons bullfrogs will cripple Arizonian ecosystems and the native amphibian species directly is because a female bullfrog’s physiology
Known in the scientific community as Bufo marinus, cane toads were introduced to Australia in the mid-1900’s t rate from their native home of South America. Sugarcane crops were at risk of destruction from the infestation of beetles, and these species were brought in to help counter the negative effect that the beetles were having on farms. These amphibians have the ability to grow up to 4.4 pounds, and were soon doing more harm than good. Not only were the cane toads eating the beetles that they were meant to, but they also started including native insect-eaters in their diets (Roach). This new addition to their food source helped the toads to thrive and expand their habitat region.
There is a deadly fungus called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd for short, that has been wiping out populations of frogs all across the world. Bd has caused dozens of extensions over the past four decades and leaving behind very few survivors. Also in the 1980s the frogs faced a similar problem with this chyrid fungus that wiped out four frog species. However, there are two frogs, the whistling tree frogs and the alpine tree frog, that are doing better than scientists predicted.
Just like DDT, these insecticides are not only affecting their target species but they are also impacting the other species that come into contact with them. These human-introduced contaminants have had many negative impacts on non-target species. One major insect that insecticides are used for today is a mosquito. An ecotoxicology study was conduced where they examined the effects of commercial mosquito insecticide formulations and predation on the survival, growth, and development of a species of tadpoles (Pauley et. al 2015). They had to take into consideration environmental stressors like predation and temperature because that can change the lethality of the insecticide. They used three insecticide formulations: mosquito bits, mosquito dunks, and mosquito torpedoes. Mosquito dunks showed the biggest significance because they caused a decrease in tadpole survival when used with a predator. The predator was used as an environmental stressor that affected the lethality of the formulation. This caused the decrease in that tad pole species. Similar predator-insecticide interactions have been found using a variety of insecticides and herbicides, incorporating multiple environmental sources of amphibian stress (Pauley et. al
There are over a million species of animals in this world, and chances are you have not heard about a majority of them. In fact, even scientists claim that they have not been able to discover all of the animal species on this planet so far. They discover new ones every year! Some animals are cute and cuddly, while others are downright weird. In this article, we will list top seven weird animals that you probably never heard about.
The palebians made up the majority of the population. But they were not allowed to have any say in political issues. The palebians were the poor, lower class citizens who couldn't become priests or be a part of the senate. They were the peasants, craftsmen, farmers, and shopkeepers. On the other hand, the patricians were the ones who were wealthy (the upper class) and the only ones that could have power in religious offices, in the senate, and could control over the military. Unllike the Palebians, the patricians were the smaller part of the population that had all the power. But just because the Patricians had all the control over Rome, this did not mean that the Palebians weren't important or "necessary"
God has given the frilled lizard a great ability to scare things away from him. It stands on its back legs, swaying back and forth . He opens up his mouth, then hisses. Bright frills of skin sticks out around his head. The lizard makes himself look big and to scare off others.
to the muskox (Ovibos moschatus). Around the beginning of September, Arctic vampire lizards will climb up the legs of muskoxen grazing on the last vegetation of the summer. Using its long toes to climb, the Arctic vampire lizard will navigate through the fur of its muskox. Like some snakes, the vampire lizard has a pit organ located beneath the nostrils with which the lizard can detect infrared radiation (Gracheva et al. 2010). The Arctic vampire lizard uses the heat sensing organ to locate where blood vessels lie close to the skin on the muskox. After locating a site, the Arctic vampire lizard will use its razor sharp teeth to first shave the area of hair, then to
Frogs, toads, caecilians, and salamanders are the members of the class Amphibian (amphi- meaning “on both sides” and bios- meaning “life”). These members always require water for reproduction. Most Amphibians undergo metamorphosis, which is a usually degenerative pathological change in the structure of a particular body tissue. And, in the case of Amphibians, it is the changing of a tadpole into