An Autoimmune Disorder Of The Central Nervous System

3281 Words14 Pages
Multiple Sclerosis
Brandi McKinney
PTH 246
Jean Hamrick
June 25, 2015

Introduction

Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, was first discovered in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot.1,2 He defined it by its “clinical and pathological characteristics: paralysis and the cardinal symptoms of intention tremor, scanning speech, and nystagmus, later termed Charcot’s triad.”2 In Physical Rehabilitation, O’Sullivan, Schmitz, and Fulk defined multiple sclerosis as “a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, selective demyelination, and gliosis of neurons of the brain and spinal cord.”2 This results in disruptions in the conduction of nerve impulses.2 The National Multiple Sclerosis Society states that more than 2.3 million people are affected by MS worldwide.1 There is no cure for Multiple Sclerosis, but several treatments can be given to help reduce complications and expand the individual’s lifespan. This paper will discuss the anatomy of a neuron, predisposing factors and causes of MS, the disease course of MS, common signs and symptoms, how to diagnose and evaluate for MS, psychological effects of the disease on the patient and his/her family, possible treatment options, cost association with treatment and disability, and special needs and resources in the community to assist patients with MS.

Anatomy

In order to understand how MS affects the body, one must have a general understanding of the anatomy of
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