An Essential Component Of Innate Immunity

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Macrophages form an essential component of innate immunity. Activation of macrophages releases an array of mediators that regulate all aspect of host defense, inflammation and homeostasis [1]. In unremitting inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, persistent antigen stimulation resulted in macrophage dysfunction which leads to inflamed synovial membrane and joint destruction [2]. The presence of macrophages at the site of inflammation can be further evident by elevated levels of macrophage derived inflammatory cytokines and mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 [3, 4]. Therefore, inhibition of these inflammatory mediators can helps in ameliorating inflammatory condition.

Conventional treatment options for the
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Although these studies have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Picrorhiza kurroa; hitherto, the anti-inflammatory pathway has remained enigmatic. Based on above facts, we undertook the present study to investigate (a) whether PKRE inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet implantation induced granuloma formation and if so (b) what are its effects on macrophage derived pro-inflammatory mediators in serum and (c) to derive plausible anti-inflammatory mechanism by evaluating effect of PKRE on activated peritoneal macrophages.

The HPLC analysis of PKRE has been carried out to determine the concentration of marker phytoconstituents, Picroside I and Picroside II. Figure 1 represents the HPLC chromatograms of the PKRE. PKRE found to contain Picroside I: 3.30%w/w & Picroside II: 4.90%w/w of dry extract.

Figure 2 depicts the effect of PKRE on carrageenan induced paw edema. Sub plantar administration of carrageenan resulted in time dependent increase in paw edema in all tested groups. Treatment with PKRE (100 and 200mg/kg) and indomethacin exhibited significant reduction in paw edema in comparison to control. However, PKRE (100 and 200 mg/kg) were found to be statistically (P<0.01) significant at all observation period (1, 3 and 5hr).

To investigate whether PKRE inhibited chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition, sterile cotton pellet were subcutaneously implanted under the
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