An Essential Component Of Innate Immunity

1375 Words Mar 16th, 2015 6 Pages
Macrophages form an essential component of innate immunity. Activation of macrophages releases an array of mediators that regulate all aspect of host defense, inflammation and homeostasis [1]. In unremitting inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, persistent antigen stimulation resulted in macrophage dysfunction which leads to inflamed synovial membrane and joint destruction [2]. The presence of macrophages at the site of inflammation can be further evident by elevated levels of macrophage derived inflammatory cytokines and mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 [3, 4]. Therefore, inhibition of these inflammatory mediators can helps in ameliorating inflammatory condition.

Conventional treatment options for the treatment of inflammatory conditions mainly consists of
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and glucocorticoids supplemented with biologics in resistant cases [5]. Although, these treatment options are effective in improving disease conditions, but chronic and long-term use of these agents may lead to serious adverse effects such as gastric ulceration, bleeding and emergence of opportunistic infection due to immunosupression. In US, 16000 arthritis patients were died because of gastric ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding associated with prolonged use of NSAIDs [6]. Due to chronic nature of disease, high cost and associated adverse events, more than 70% of patients with musculoskeletal disorders use complementary and alternative…
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