The rise of the era of the nation state brought along an abundance of violent bloodshed and war as countries fought for their independence from Empires that had ruled them for years. This is especially true for Algeria, a country that had been without independence for over a century. The Battle of Algiers, a 1966 film directed by Gillo Pontecorvo illustrates the struggle that Algerians underwent in an effort to gain independence from France. The film perfectly captures the violence that overtook Algeria during the war for independence. The film displays the violent process of Algeria’s decolonization, focusing on the period from 1954 to 1957, showing how the Algerian people, using unlikely methods and people,
On June 12th, 1830 thirty-thousand French soldiers landed at Sidi Ferruch, twenty-seven kilometers from Algiers. After three weeks, the better trained and better equipped French soldiers captured Algiers and raped, looted, desecrated mosques, and destroyed cemeteries. Thus beginning a 132 year long occupation ripe with the arrogant cruelty of the French “civilizing mission”. The French mistreatment of Algerian natives would continue until a violent revolution, beginning in 1954, would eventually expel the French from Algeria, in 1962 (Algeria - FRANCE IN ALGERIA, 1830-1962).
make a compelling case for the expression of the Algerian government’s role in the persistence of the conflict.
However, the greed for power overtook the French and made them create policies that were oppressive, ridiculous, and equated to too much for one group of people. Those strict policies and complete control would be the reason that the Algerian colony was able to break the hold of the French and continue the negative spiral that history had paved for them. Colonialism in Algeria would not be the answer to bolstering their image and would set the French further back than they were prior to having the territory handed to them during the Berlin Conference. However, the French were able to capitalize on the economic benefits of the colony and profit greatly while in control of the colony. The loss of Algeria as a colony in the 1960’s would equate to one of the most significant and defining aspects of what France would be like following the post-colonial era. The treatment of the Algerians and the over-bearing nature of the French could explain why the Algerian colony was a failed endeavor for the French. They attempted to control all political, social, and economic aspects of the colony to ensure that they were seen as powerful by not only the natives, but the other powerful European nations that were colonizing the African
The end of WWII fueled Algeria’s nationalist sentiments when successful countries called other countries to rise up against their colonial rulers (Bentley 895). The French realized that its various colonies were trying to gain independence and the French focused their authority on only Algeria, allowing all other colonies to gain independence (Bentley 895). That action showed France’s determination to control Algeria, for resources, security of their own country, and their own honor. Algeria, already motivated by nationalism, was triggered when French authorities fired shots into a peaceful Algerian nationalist rally in Sétif (Bentley 895). Mass revolution broke out state-wide.
Eight years of war had shattered Algeria. There had been more than one million Algerian casualties and nearly two million Algerians had lost their homes. For over a century the French had deprived the Algerians of any but the most minimal opportunity to become involved in its infrastructure and institutions.
Through the pillaging of indigenous land, discriminatory land allocation practices, violent military presence, and objectification of Algerian women, the Algerian colonial experience was one of constant brutality. The result of such merciless colonial tactics was the rise in extremism, poor literacy rates, as well as unstable leadership. Having an understanding of colonial Algeria and its legacies is vital to comprehending contemporary Algeria due to the fact that numerous issues present in modern day Algeria are deeply rooted in its colonial past. The role of colonialism in Algeria should not be understated and studying the history of a former colony is key to being aware on how the past continues to shape and have a strong hold on
global stability from the Cold War to the war on terror and cannot bear the loss of Western Sahara.” Zunes highlighted Moroccan’s ability to market its alleged threats from socialism to political Islam to appeal to the US and French foreign policy and consolidate support.
There are so many examples but this Essay focuses on the movie Battle of Algiers and how it depicts the violence of colonialism in Algeria by France and the price Algerians had to pay to regain what was previously
Perhaps the most important lesson of the film—and the French experience in Algeria—is that successful military tactics do not lead to lasting peace unless accompanied with a successful political strategy. The use of torture inevitably backfired on the French, reducing public support for the occupation. Although the FLN was crushed, the closing scene of the movie portrays Algerians in 1964 taking to the streets and demanding
Treligious tension runs high acroos all regions of the world, but when looking at statistics of religious conflicts the middle east has the greatest amount of religious war and turmoil than any other region of the world. Whether it be due to a diverse amount of rleligions spanning the close circumfrance of the middle east or because of political power, religious conflict is very prevalent in the middle eats. Algeria is no acceptoiin to this observation.
“Algeria holds the eleventh-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and the second largest in Africa. Gas is supplied either through several pipelines or as Liqued Natural Gas (LNG). It is also estimated to have the third largest recoverable shale gas deposits after China and Argentina” (Reinforcing Dictatorships, 2014). The country is an OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) member and stands as the 15th largest extractor of crude oil in the world. Natural gas and oil account for almost all of Algeria’s total primary energy consumption (Reinforcing Dictatorships, 2014). North Africa is one of the EU’s most reliant and important partners. The relationship between the Maghreb countries and Europe (in particular Italy, France and Spain) has multiple branches including: trade and investment, regional stability and cultural exchanges (European Union External Action, 2016). The tie between Europe and North African countries, in particular with the Maghreb was strengthened through multiple historical events. With recent events going on in regards to Russia and the world the EU is seeking to lower their energy dependency from Russia and divert it somewhere else. Algerians recognize that Algeria has consistently maintained high levels of trade with France with goods such as oil, gas, or agricultural goods.
They felt that it was part of the national identity and that without it France would not truly be itself. This strong identity of a French Algeria changed over the course of the war however, and eventually more and more French citizens were for the independence of Algeria and only a few number of the pied noirs and military elite held the idea that Algeria should remain part of France. It was this shift in the mentality of the French populous that influenced the French government, led by President Charles De Gaulle, to end the war and to grant Algeria its independence. To analyze this shift in French identity, the history of the colony needs to be understood along with the events of the war to be able to justify that the French people indeed has a change in their
The animosity leading to the Algerian civil war begins with the Algerians fight for independence. Before independence, terrorist activity by different Algerian nationalist groups pushing for decolonization begins to rise throughout the country. As a French settlement, the French settlers in Algeria begin to fight back in hopes of keeping Algeria as a French
When the war came to a close, over a million Algerians remained in France. These people, referred to as pied noirs, were a constant reminder of a violent past and forced citizens to address processes of amnesty and reconciliation. In the past, French citizens looked to French Algeria as a point of pride and a symbol of their nation’s colonial successes. Now, when memory of French Algeria and the war is reflected upon it carries with it demands for reparations and equality for the pied noirs, as well as for the millions of French soldiers or their families who were persecuted after their return. While often repressed, this memory of French Algeria has been used for political purposes as well. Right-wing politicians have pushed for the pardoning of hundreds of soldiers and officers who were involved in the horrific war. In my opinion, this government led amnesty was one reason racist murderers felt free to attack Algerian immigrants, as they did frequently in the 1970’s. After all, if the government allowed war crimes to go unpunished, why couldn’t the Algerian consulate be bombed without