The evidence hierarchy is a ranking that distinguish the types of research evidence based on the strength of the evidence itself (Polit & Beck, 2012). It is mostly applicable to the research questions regarding the effects of clinical interventions. The evidence that are ranked based on the evidence that uses appropriate research methods, rigorously reviewed with minimized biases and has great clinical implications. The strongest evidence based on the evidence hierarchy is systematic reviews, which draws conclusions from many randomized controlled trails (Polit & Beck, 2012).
Depression is one of the many problems that International Students face. It's a problem that affects their day to activities and if left unattended can cause a lot of harm. It is called the 'common cold' of mental illness (Mental Health Info &Links, 2001). Depression was compared with 100 other diseases and it was ranked fourth in the global burden by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There is a fear that it might rise to second it diagnosis, treatment or prevention is not improved. Depression causes suffering and anguish for individuals, families, friends and communities. Families and employers expand both personal and economic resources to deal with the person’s depression and depressive symptoms. A major concern it that early
While research has long paralleled medicine, the use of strong research evidence as the basis for clinical action is more recent (Houser, 2015). The historically accepted hierarchy of evidence separates evidence into levels of trust, from highest to lowest (Greenhalgh, 2010):
Literature reviews provide adequate supporting evidence for the evidence-based practice (EBP) process (Cowell, 2016). By using the information obtained from the literature review, that supports the topic, one can evaluate a situation and arrive at the problem that needs a solution. Therefore, an appropriate technique is necessary when searching for the right literature and evidence (Cowell, 2016).
This rating scale is used to determine whether or not research is worth putting into practice. During the appraisal of research, there is a different level of evidence that is taking into consideration. There is three quality rating with five different categories. The quality rating is graded from high, good, and low or major flaw level of evidence. A high-quality research requires the study to be well structured and organized with all the necessary elements and definite conclusion. Research is considered good when the result is within normal limits and the conclusion although not conclusive can lead to more research. Lastly, a low-quality rating did not provide much information and stayed inconclusive (Dearholt.& Dang, 2012, p. 12P). There is five level of evidence in which research can fall under. The level is from I to V. the level I includes all systematic review researches that are experimental with a randomized controlled trial. These researches might be randomized with or without meta-analysis.
Research has only one source of proof and that is the research itself (Levin, 2006). The focus of research is on whether the intervention being researched is ready to be applied to clinical practice (Levin, 2006). Evidence-Based Practice reviews and assesses current clinical practice and presents a new or improved clinical practice (Levin, 2006). Evidence-Based Practice begins by questioning a current clinical practice (Levin, 2006). The question will then help guide the reviewer to reliable research in a reputable database, to find quality evidence that will answer the clinical question (Levin, 2006). The evidence then has to be evaluated for legitimacy and incorporated into clinical practice and lastly it will be assessed to determine if it is successful and if it meets patient preference and satisfaction (Levin,
Satterfield, J. M., Spring, B., Brownson, R. C., Mullen, E. J., Newhouse, R. P., Walker, B. B., & Whitlock, E. P. (2009). Toward a transdisciplinary model of evidence-based practice. The Milbank Quarterly, 87(2), 368–390.
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are considered forms of evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP is the process of integrating the best evidentiary information available with scientific expertise (97, 98). Gibbs describes EBP as (1) being driven by values of putting forth best practices by the researcher; (2) establishing a well-defined question that guides the research for best practices; (3) exploring and exhausting the literature to answer issues in question; (4) critically appraising the evidence found for validity and worth; (5) applying the evidence to policy or practice; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of the application; and (7) disseminating the results (99). In this case, there are no published systematic reviews on the association
This study used a meta-analysis; meta-analysis combines a number of different studies which are directed by several separate researchers to quantify the effects a given approach has on a specific outcome. By extending the data pool to include various different situations and increasing sample sizes the results produce a better quantitative estimate. Therefore there is a Level I of evidence for this research project. This is the strongest level of evidence because it uses already proven research to further expand the research
The term depression is widely misused in today’s society. All human beings experience periods in life where they are sad for a relatively short period of time, which is considered normal. Those who experience sadness for extended periods may be suffering from depression. Two terms used to reference the classifications of depression, are Major Depressive Disorder, and Dysthymia. Individual diagnosis of these classifications is dependent on the length of time, and severity of symptoms experienced by the individual. The causes for these depressive states can be due to genetics or the insufficient production of neurotransmitters, which provide the brain with the data necessary to regulate one's psychological well being. Two examples
Many people feel apprehensive and miserable every now and then, but when does it take over their whole lives? Losing a loved one, doing poorly in school or work, being bullied and other hardships might lead a person to feel sad, lonely, scared, nervous and/or anxious. Some people experience this on an everyday basis, sometimes even or no reason at all. Those people might have an anxiety disorder, depression, or both. It is highly likely for someone with an anxiety disorder to also be suffering from depression, or the other way around. 50% of those diagnosed with depression are also diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.
Depression has been a part of our lives for as long as humans have been on the earth. Everyone has had days when nothing was going right. But it all depends with an individual how to handled this adversity and how depressed that person becomes.
Depression has numerous causes and effects which affect not only the person but the people around them. Depression doesn’t have a specific cause; in most cases it’s different for everyone. It is a common, treatable mental illness that can be experienced at any time in life. It is often described with feeling sad, unhappy, miserable, or “down in the dumps”. Most people have these feelings on occasion. There are several types of depression. These different types of depression describe slight, but often important, diagnostic differences. True clinical depression interferes with mood disorder in everyday life for weeks, months, or even years. Most people think depression affects only one
Today’s teenagers are faced with the ever changing world around them and the biological changes of their bodies. Many teens are also faced with depression. Approximately half of teenagers with untreated depression may attempt suicide, which remains the third leading cause of death in this age group. (Bostic). This depression affects their school, family lives, and robs them of their self image. Depression affects many teens and often goes by unnoticed and untreated.