and environmental determinants that ultimately shape the aging process. The hippocampus, a subcortical brain region, is responsible for mediating memory consolidation, spatial navigation, and to some extent learning (Kolb and Whishaw, 2013). It is particularly impaired in old individuals and the focus of numerous experiments aimed at delaying degeneration or alternatively enhancing neurogenesis. This limbic structure is readily influenced by the stress response, namely the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal
Earth sits inside an arm of stars which are always going to be in front of our view of other galaxies far beyond the stars of our own galaxy. b) The galaxies are getting farther apart (on very large distance scales), with the velocity of recession proportional to the distance between them. 2. The sky and the science of astronomy a. Explain the significance of the celestial sphere. 1) What important directions and coordinate systems help you find your way around the sky? a) The Constellation Method
the interactions of positive and negative charges were shown to be regulated by one force. There are four main effects resulting from these interactions, all of which have been clearly demonstrated by experiments: 1. Electric charges attract or repel one another with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: unlike charges attract, like ones repel. 2. Magnetic poles (or states of polarization at individual points) attract or repel one another in a similar way
discretize the problem is to define a graph of “waypoints” between which the submarine can easily travel. A simple waypoint graph can be searched, but this approach is not without significant disadvantages. First, the dynamics of such approximate navigation are not realistic. It’s still common to see massive vehicles in computer games turn about instantly and maintain constant velocity at all times. When considering acceleration in agent behavior, there’s a quick realization that the notion of a “waypoint”
system: i) Received signal strength indication (RSSI) measurement. This approach of radiolocation system makes use of the relationship between the received signal strength and the distance [10, 11]. Theoretically, there exists an inverse proportional relationship between the received signal and the distance from the receiving station that can be represented linearly. Unfortunately, various phenomena like multi path fading and shadowing make it impossible to establish a precise relationship
electronic devices; use computers and engineering software to design devices; work in a team to build the items that we designed; and test and provide maintenance as needed for these items. I might design items like an electric motor, a radar system, a navigation system, a communications system, or power generation equipment. (idcis.org, “Electrical and Electronics Engineers”) The working conditions work for me. There isn’t much moving around, mostly sitting at a computer for about a 40-hour work week.
and electronic devices; use computers and engineering software to design devices; work in a team to build the items that we designed; and test and provide maintenance as needed for these items. I might design an electric motor, a radar system, a navigation system, a communications system, or power generation equipment. (idcis.org, “Electrical and Electronics Engineers”) The working conditions work for me. There isn’t much moving around, mostly sitting at a computer for about a 40-hour work week.
the day? But then we have all those despairing statements by Americans in the 1780s declaring that America in the midst of a crisis more was serious than anything experienced during the darkest days of the war. Many believed that America's great experiment in republicanism was in danger and that America's "vices" were plunging the nation into "ruin." The enlightened Philadelphia physician Benjamin Rush went so far as to say that Americans were on the verge of "degenerating into savages or devouring
scientific revolution, Galileo takes a high position because of his pioneering use of quantitative experiments with results analyzed mathematically. There was no tradition of such methods in European thought at that time; the great experimentalist who immediately preceded Galileo, William Gilbert, did not use a quantitative approach. However, Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, had performed experiments in which he discovered what may be the oldest known non-linear relation in physics, between the tension
parameters of the enclosure are learned separately from featural information in a specialized geometric module. Later studies have shown that, in a reference memory version of Cheng’s task, features are also eventually learned (e.g., Cheng, 1986, Experiments 2 and 3; Wall, Botly, Black, & Shettleworth, 2004). Many other species, including fish, birds, monkeys, and human children, learn geometry in a similar way (see review in Cheng & Newcombe, 2005). Studies of geometry learning raise two essentially