An Ideal Hero: Greek vs. Roman Essay

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1. Features that identify a society as "civilized" a. Agriculture (irrigation) and breeding of animals = surplus food (goats, peig, cattle, sheep). Wheat, barley, rice, and maize.(Sci&Tech- polish stone tools. Ex: stone sickles) b. Cities: large apartment settlements= standard architecture & surplus manpower c. Writing (“gifts of the gods”)= records. Pictograph, ideogram, cuneiform. d. Institutions for centralized & inherited power . - Priesthood for centralized sacred ritual . - Kingship for centralized political and social structure (Paraoh= kings in Egypt) .
2. Geographical areas of early civilizations
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Truth is painful. c. Logic: Aristotle - Student of Plato, founded school in Athens, 335 B.C. - Organized natural sciences into biology, zoology, botany - Theory of Universals: Inductive Science: Universals discovered from particulars, therefore studying the material world can (only) produce universals/ absolutes. Plato’s dualism devalued study of material world. - Deductive/Formal Logic for ethics and science Hellenistic: a. Epicuranism - Founder: Epicurus (341-271 B.C.) - Atomist: all matter made up of atoms so all forms are random; no controls - No afterlife: death= end; no judgment - Absolute free will: each creates own destiny; absolute individuality - Goal of life: Pleasure (hedone> hedonism) *individual pleasure -> society would crush Pleasure: absence of pain. Pain < unsatisfied desires. Minimal desires > Peace & pleasure; harmony = agreement between desires and fulfillment. Life of Moderation (Ex: credit card vs. cash budget). b. Stoicism *Resistance cause pain, learn to live the Stoic life. - Founder: Zeno (334-262 B.C.) - Social Logos (=Heraclitus): All natural and society controlled by reason. The destiny of one is the FOR THE GOOD OF THE WHOLE. Happiness <
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