An Integrative Literature Review : The American Diabetes Association

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An Integrative Literature Review
The American Diabetes association (2014) reports that, approximately 29.1 million U. S. residents are diabetic. They found that 35% to 40% of people died from diabetic related causes. 2010 saw 69,071 death certificate reported deaths listing diabetes as the direct/underlying cause of death, while, 234,051 death certificates lists diabetes as the underlying/contributing cause of death. Diabetes still remains the 7th leading cause of death in the United States.

Diabetes is a chronic disease, with no remedy and carries many negative effects. Damage to the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves and eyes are among the affected areas. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes related nerve damage, can affect any part of the body. Diabetic patients are encouraged to exercise and practice good nutrition. It is recommended patients undergo screening to help monitor glucose (blood sugar) levels and work with health care professionals to keep blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
For the diabetic patient, blood glucose levels must be kept between 80 -140 mg/dl especially prior to and after surgery. Surgery in diabetic patients is connected with longer hospital stays, expanded morbidity and mortality, and postoperative infection. With or without diabetes, intraoperative hyperglycemia is a “critical marker” for unfavorable events in surgical patients.
This review seeks to
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