An Investigation of Chemical Vapour Deposition of Graphene on a Copper Substrate

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Graphene exhibits numerous unique properties, which have caused large-scale research of the material. For example, its charge carriers have zero effective mass (called Dirac fermions) and exhibit ultra-relativistic effects , therefore possess mobility’s of up to 200,000 cm2V-1s-1; the material shows the half-integer quantum Hall effect and shows absorption of 2.3% of the visible spectrum of light .
Graphene of the highest quality and best structural integrity is acquired by mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented graphite . As graphene produced in this method is structurally superior, it is used as a reference and new methods are compared relative to it. However, although mechanically exfoliated graphene exhibits low amounts of
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Graphene exhibits numerous unique properties, which have caused large-scale research of the material. For example, its charge carriers have zero effective mass (called Dirac fermions) and exhibit ultra-relativistic effects , therefore possess mobility’s of up to 200,000 cm2V-1s-1; the material shows the half-integer quantum Hall effect and shows absorption of 2.3% of the visible spectrum of light .
Graphene of the highest quality and best structural integrity is acquired by mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented graphite . As graphene produced in this method is structurally superior, it is used as a reference and new methods are compared relative to it. However, although mechanically exfoliated graphene exhibits low amounts of defects in its structure, the size, location and scalability are extremely difficult to control. Therefore a number of methods have been explored to create and reproduce high quality graphene in a large scale. Of the possible methods, three were explored in detail. One method explored used exfoliation of graphite in liquids . However, it is possible for this method to introduce structural defects into the resulting thin layer . Another possible method is the reduction of graphene oxide via HI and Woolins reagent.
The most effective method for producing graphene of high structural integrity is chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using transition metal surfaces. Common transition metals include Cu , Ni and Ru . The conditions of growth, and
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