Primary prevention -- using methods to prevent a disease before it begins -- requires an understanding of the disease’s cause. Most cases of PD are idiopathic; these result from an interaction between genetic factors and the environment (Heath, 2011). Five to ten percent of PD cases are due to inherited genetic mutations (Gillies et al., 2014; Heath, 2011). The largest risk factor for developing PD is increased age (Stacy et al., 2009). PD has a
Parkinson disease (PD), also referred to as Parkinson’s disease and paralysis agitans, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is the third most common neurologic disorder of older adults. It is a debilitating disease affecting motor ability and is characterized by four cardinal symptoms: tremor rigidity, bradykinesia or kinesis (slow movement/no movement), and postural instability. Most people have primary, or idiopathic, disease. A few patients have secondary parkinsonian symptoms from conditions such as brain tumors and certain anti-psychotic drugs.
This paper is limited to Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinson’s Disease was thoroughly researched and will be described in depth including: physiology, etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic testing, therapeutic measures, and short vs. long term effects.
Parkinson’s disease is a highly pathological disease dated back for thousands of years. It is the most common movement disorder in our current society and the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Parkinson’s disease was first studied by James Parkinson in 1817, which resulted in the identification of the common symptoms of the disease. (Parkinson’s Disease Information, 2014) This disease is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle control. This loss of muscle control leads to other complications such as trembling of the limbs and head when at rest. (Board, 2013)
After watching the video: My father, My Brother, and Me, viewable at www.pbs.org , I took away four significant concepts pertaining to PD. The first concept is that although there is not a definitive cause to this disease, research has shown that factors such as genes and toxic chemicals may play a pivotal role in the
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aberrant α-synuclein aggregates within neurons causing damage or neuronal death in different regions of the brain with most disease development occurring in the substantia nigra (NIH.PARK). α-synuclein positive Lewy bodies are another hallmark of PD development (NIH.PARK). Damage or death of neurons leads to a decrease in dopamine production which is required for smooth control of muscle movement (NIH.PARK2, NIH.PARK). Clinically presenting symptoms manifest over time and are characterized by muscle rigidity, tremors and delayed movement however, cognitive changes have also been observed (NIH.PARK2, NIH.PARK). Almost all cases of PD develop sporadically with a small
Charcot examined a large group of patients within Salpetriere Hospital in Paris, he had developed a way to observe tremors in action and at rest. “He noted that the patients with action tremor had accompanying features of weakness, spasticity, and visual disturbance. In contrast, those with rest tremor differed in having rigidity, slowed movements, a typical hunched posture, and very soft spoken.” (Goetz 2011) Charcot early tremor studies helped to establish Parkinson’s Disease through his very high publicized findings that neurological entity could be confidently be diagnosed. In 1957 a Swedish scientist Arvid Carlsson found out that dopamine in the brain region that is important for movement control. He showed that the levels of dopamine can be reduced in animals to cause symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease and also by giving the animals levodopa (L-dopa) to reverse the symptoms of PD. PD is second most common neurodegenerative after Alzheimer’s Disease and the most common movement disorder. Over 60,000 people here in the United States are diagnosed every year but they say the numbers can be much higher with undiagnosed people out there but over one million people live with Parkinson daily.10 million people worldwide live with Parkinson’s Disease and April 11th is World Parkinson’s Day. On April 11th, 2017 marked 200 years since James Parkinson publicized his essay.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a type of progressive brain disorder in the human body. Brain activity becomes disrupted when nerve cells that produce dopamine start to break down. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for movement. When it’s at extremely low levels, one would experience symptoms such as slower movement, shakiness, problems with posture, and stiff muscles. Unfortunately, Parkinson’s is incurable, but there are different types of treatments to help slow down the progression of the disease.
Parkinson’s is a very interesting disease because just like there is no set cure or cause, there is no one way diagnosis for the disease as well. However, doctors take into consideration the many symptoms that are typically present in someone
In this paper I am going to talk about Parkinson’s Disease. I will talk about what it is, how it occurs, the symptoms, any cures/treatments, facts, how the disease affects the levels of organization, what levels it affects, how it affects homeostasis, how the disease disrupts homeostasis, and how the body responds.
Although many theories and hypotheses were raised as to why this happens, there is no solid information supporting the physiological cause of this, but it is surely one of various factors that may lead to the development of PD.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the country. It is characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and impaired muscular coordination (Wei et al., 2014). It affects approximately 50/100,000 people over the age of fifty. PD can occur sporadically, but affects one third of people with two or more first-degree relatives with the disease (Duffy, 2005, p. 190).
Parkinson’s disease is one of the most frightening and deadliest diseases of them all, and is potentially life altering not only for the individual who gets it, but for their loved ones as well. Commonly found amongst the elderly,” Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurological disease that mainly affects movement but can also affect cognition.” (What is Parkison’s Disease), and it effects people who are on average ages 60 years and older. As we as humans age and progress through life, so does our bodies. Change within the body can be potentially be for the good, change that is not necessarily good. In this case, Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and neurological disease that effects move and cognition of the body. As stated in the text, “Parkinson’s disease results from the destruction of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the basal ganglia” (What is Parkison’s Disease). In other words, Parkinson’s disease effects and ruptures nerve cells in a major part of the brain, which in essence causes negative effects and memory/brain function. Several parts of the brain work simultaneously together to send signals to each other to coordinate all of our thoughts, movements, emotions, and senses. When we have the urge to move, a signal is sent from a part of the brain named the basal ganglia to another part of the brain named the thalamus, which is then sent to the cerebral cortex. This is a disease that effects many elderly people worldwide, and the families of
Parkinson’s disease is a disorder that affects the nerve cells, in a part of the brain that controls the movement of muscles. Symptoms of this debilitating disease include trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face, stiffness of arms, legs and trunk, slowness of movement, poor balance and coordination. As symptoms get progressively worse, people may experience depression, sleep problems, swallowing and speaking problems. Till now there is no cure for this disease.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which worsen over time. PD is due to loss and degeneration of dopamine neurone in the brain. This neurone is important to make signalling chemical called dopamine which allow us to make normal movement. Cause for this disease is unknown, or basically acknowledged as idiopathic. However, there are