An Understanding of Various Motivation Theories

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Describe, compare and contrast one process and one content theory of motivation. Evaluate how appropriate they are for organisations today.

This essay’s aim is to analyse and establish an understanding of various motivation theories and their possible application within organisations. Along with implementing, the information related to motivation, this essay would demonstrate the importance of motivation and it is necessary for organisations to motivate their employees effectively

Motivation derives from the Latin word “movere” which means to move. Luthans (1998) defines motivation as “a process which begins with physiological or psychological need or deficiency which triggers behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or an
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Advancement and work itself are dissatisfying factors where in Herzberg's theory they are motivating factors. Relationship with peers and subordinates, performance and recognition are the dominant driving force in ITES. The study indicates that these factors are the main motivators in the Information Technology Enabled Services and for this reason, Herzberg's theory is not entirely appropriate. Even though Herzberg's theory is not entirely applicable in the construction and Information Technology industries, recent researches in the hospitality and tourism indicate that Motivation-Hygiene theory is of quite importance when using seasonal workers (Lundberg, C., Gudmundson, A. and Anderson, T.D., 2009).

On the other hand, a process theory like Vroom’s Expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964) focuses on the outcome and not on needs unlike Herzberg. It gives an answer for why individuals select one behavioural option above others. The Expectancy Theory argues, "People make decisions among alternative plans of behaviour based on their perceptions [expectancies] of the degree to which a given behaviour will lead to desired outcomes" (Mathibe, I.R. 2008). Vroom theorized that the source of motivation in Expectancy Theory is a "multiplicative function of valence, instrumentality and expectancy." (Stecher and Rosse, 2007), where valence means "value" and refers to
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