We have been aware of HIV and AIDS since the 1970s (Miller, 2012), and though there have been treatments and reduction in the number of people infected, the disease remains. The disease results in death usually following opportunistic infections as a result of AIDS destruction of the immune system, but thanks to modern medicine “many people
Drug abuse is too much consumption of drugs which results in problematic consequences as a result of the excessive consumption. The issue of drug abuse has presented major controversies as to whether or not is detrimental to health and should not be used or whether people have the absolute right to do whatever they may please with their lives so long as nobody else is being affected. The abuse of drugs has not only disastrous consequences for a drug user but his or her entire family as well. In the present times, the abuse of drugs is at its peak. Particularly in the third world countries and the developing countries, individuals and specifically youth has been involved in such nefarious activities which are only ruining their lives. At the name of freedom and liberty, many countries are disseminating such a mentality that every adult is free to his or her own life styles (Regier et al., 1990).
Since the discovery of the HIV virus in 1983, there have been many precautions taken to control and prevent the spreading of this deadly disease. Helen Epstein, who is the author of “AIDS Inc,” informs her readers about the sexually transmitted disease known as the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Epstein enlightens her audience with crucial information in regards to the ruthless disease that is devouring the lives of innocent people, typically in Africa, where people are especially prone to acquiring AIDS. South Africa, having one of the highest amounts of rape crimes in the world, is also home to the highest amount of people living with HIV in the world, at about
The prospects for effective management of individuals with HIV are early dictation of the disease and identification and implementation of an evidence-based intervention that will slow the advancement of HIV to deleterious outcomes (Vervloet, Linn, Van Weert, de Bakker, Bouvy, & Dijik, 2012). HIV is a pandemic and pervasive disease that is associated with extensive mortality and morbidity. In the 1980s, HIV has claimed the lives of 33 million individuals’ and 35 million individuals are presently living with the disease nationwide. HIV attacks humans’ protective systems, and then replicates itself. As a result of this replication, the body cells thereby overwhelm the T-cells or the CD4
Sub-Saharan Africa leads top position among other countries in having HIV infected population. The pathetic condition of Africa is due to promiscuity and their casual attitudes toward sex. Sexual promiscuity and AIDS are closely correlated, as promiscuity becomes the major reason for the transmission of this deadly virus. Several sexual practices people have may increase the risk of infection of HIV/AIDS for example homosexuality. Even though homosexuality does not have anything with the traditional aspects, it exists in places where few women are present and in situations where authoritative male can have advantage over the other males. Homosexuality is prevailed in many parts of world that may lead to the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sugar daddies contribute more in the act of spreading HIV. As per a study in British, young girls are the victims who are infected with HIV because of these sugar daddies who date with young girl and support monetarily. Many poverty-stricken countries such as Africa and South East Asia are the target of these sugar daddies who can win girls for money.
HIV and AIDS have affected millions of people throughout the world. Since 1981, there have been 25 million deaths due to AIDS involving men, women, and children. Presently there are 40 million people living with HIV and AIDS around the world and two million die each year from AIDS related illnesses. The Center for Disease Control estimates that one-third of the one million Americans living with HIV are not aware that they have it. The earliest known case of HIV was in 1959. It was discovered in a blood sample from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Looking further into the genetics of this blood sample researchers suggested that it had originated from a virus going back to the late 1940’s or early 1950’s. In 1999,
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that cause initial HIV infection and, as the virus proliferates in the body, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV affects the immune system by exploiting, and, eventually, destroying a specific kind of immune cells. That allows for the gradual deterioration of a person’s immune system, which ultimately causes death from minor opportunistic infections, which are normally perfectly curable and generally do not cause major consequences for health. HIV has a limited range of transmission ways. It is only transmitted through the direct contact of body fluids, which include blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk . This means that most of the modes of transmission include activities that are moralized by society, such as intravenous drug use and sexual contact . However, it can also be transmitted through “innocent pathways”, such as during breastfeeding (mother to child) and blood transfusion. HIV is a very young, still poorly understood virus. It was first clinically observed in the summer of 1981 in San Francisco, where it was spotted as a type of sarcoma, mostly spotted in the gay population. In the beginning of the global epidemic, there was a huge misunderstanding of the disease . Back then, a general sentiment about HIV was that of a “rather devastating outbreak”  , associated with homosexuality and drug use (to the point
In the 1980s, a mysterious disease began to take the lives of Americans. With the cause unknown, a fear grew among Americans. An unusually high rate of people was becoming sick with strange and rare diseases. When experimental treatments failed to work, people died. This mysterious disease is what we now know as HIV–Human Immunodeficiency Virus. In the past thirty-five years, the HIV has taken many turns in history. Although we do not hear about HIV and AIDS now, it is still a prevalent issue in the United States and in the world.
Along these lines, most importantly, Hawa’s story displays the inability of African societies to target “key populations” of the HIV epidemic due to social stigmas. Being in the margins of society, prostitutions, male and female, are not frequently targeted by HIV prevention campaigns. Part of the reason for this lack of preventative care come from the stigmatization of their behavior, shown through its illegality. The problem is then exacerbated because women or men are unable to ask the police for assistance. Policemen abuse their position of power to exploit women or men’s sexually in return for the dismal of their law violation. Police actions further reinforce the idea of sex being a forefront of relationships for Africans, in order to negotiation and manage relationships. Once women feel comfortable they are willing to learn about HIV and how to prevent their personal contraction, “It’s not that the women didn’t want help — it was a matter of who to trust.” Stigmatization is thus proven because without the fear of society, women truly desire help and assistance. Therefore, when a group of individual’s behavior is stigmatized the are more unlikely to seek out treatment, leaving those groups fully unprotected against the disease. Since Africans that partake in sexual relationships with those in the margins of society also keep their actions secret in fear of societal disapproval the effects are disastrous in terms of HIV contraction. Men unwilling to express their
It is quite disturbing to witness someone undergo much suffering due to a fatal disease, and it is even more painful to lose a loved one because of some kind illness that cannot be cured. Over the years, many individuals have been unfortunate to face the devastating effects of diseases such as diabetes, cancer, among others. However, the emergence of yet another deadly disease known as AIDS has again complicated matters. AIDS has proved to be one of the most fatal health condition across the world, and its impact in the society has grown to be a major global challenge today. The disease is essentially caused by the HIV virus, which can be spread from one person to another through sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and sharing of cutting and piecing instruments with an infected person (Shukla, 2014). AIDS has not only claimed the lives of millions of people, but also has its economic implications to the nations of the world. Although various treatment procedures have been designed to help address this health threat, such as the use of antiretroviral therapies, the disease, and its associated effects, can only be dealt with effectively through the development of HIV/AIDS vaccine.
Since it’s discovery, HIV has spread relentlessly, bringing about the most devastating pandemic in recorded human history. This pandemic is obliterating the lives and livelihoods of millions of individuals worldwide, with more than 39 million people having died due to AIDS-related causes, 35 million people living with HIV and 2.1 million individuals being newly infected each year. Thus, each day an estimated 15,000 individuals are newly infected and this alarming rate is set to increase. In Swaziland, where gender inequality is pervasive, public services are weak and poverty is extensive, the situation is far worse.
HIV has been a pandemic that has affected the world relentlessly for many years in a never-ending circle. HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is the virus that is spread through certain bodily fluids and can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). HIV attacks the immune system by destroying CD4+ T cells, which leaves the person infected with HIV vulnerable to other infections, diseases, and other complications.1 Once this virus is acquired, the human can never fully rid itself of this pathogen. If left untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4+ cells in the body whom sole duty is to protect the body from infections. 2 Many scientists have postulated on where the virus was first introduced. It has been assumed that the virus was first encountered humans whom were hunting and eating chimpanzees in Central Africa and the virus has spread like wildfire since then. Data over the years have shown that the virus has existed within the United States since at least the mid to late 1970s. 3 No effective cure for HIV currently exist although many vaccine studies are underway around the world, but with the proper treatment and medical care provided by the medical team, HIV can be controlled and have low transmission rates. The medicine we use to treat HIV is referred to as antiretroviral therapy or ART. When a person infected HIV adheres to the medication correctly, it will allow for them to live longer and have healthier lives. 2
Although the first wave of HIV infections occurred in 1988 amongst injecting drug users, it was during 1989 – 1990 that prompted the “awakening of HIV/AIDS.” The National Advisory Committee on AIDS developed a surveillance of sentinel groups, which included sex workers, male patients with sexually transmitted infections, and blood donors. This surveillance revealed the HIV virus being transmitted rapidly through sex. From 1989-1990, the prevalence of direct sex workers infected with the virus tripled from 3.5% to 9.3%. One year later, this prevalence increased to 21.6%. During the same period, the proportion of male conscripts, aged 21, infected with HIV during testing for entry to the army rose six fold from 0.5% in 1989 to 3% in 1991. This increase was associated with the growing popularity of visiting sex establishments among young men.
The first determinant of health related to African American female population in the 19132 zip code pertains to policies. Polices for this population include providing access to health care, HIV testing and syringe services programs. The Office of HIV Planning in Philadelphia focuses on the needs of the population, conducts community outreaches and educational sessions. As previously stated, 32 state Medicaid programs reimburse for routine HIV screening of adults aged 15-65 years, regardless of risk. This policy allows for individuals to more likely participate in this screening process. HIV testing can be done through health care professionals offices or clinics. Other programs such as AIDS Fund and AVERTing HIV and AIDS provide information on locations on where testing can be done. AVERTing HIV and AIDS also provides information on Needle and Syringe Programs that are available in the community.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that cause initial HIV infection and, as the virus proliferates in the body, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV affects the immune system by exploiting, and, eventually, destroying a specific kind of immune cells. That allows for the gradual deterioration of a person’s immune system, which ultimately causes death from minor opportunistic infections, which are normally perfectly curable and generally do not cause major consequences for health. HIV has a limited range of transmission ways. It is only transmitted through the direct contact of body fluids, which include blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk . This means that most of the modes of transmission include activities that are moralized by the society, such as intravenous drug use and sexual contacts . However, it can also be transmitted through “innocent pathways”, such as during breastfeeding (mother to child) and blood transfusion. HIV is a very young, still poorly understood virus. It was first clinically observed in the summer of 1981 in San Francisco, where it was spotted as a type of sarcoma, mostly spotted in the gay population. Huge misunderstanding of the disease in the beginning of the global epidemic was prevalent . Back then, a general sentiment about HIV was that of a “rather devastating outbreak”  and of association of this disease with homosexuality and drug use (to the point of declaring the disease not