Investopedia.com states, “free trade is the economic policy of not discriminating against imports from and exports to foreign jurisdictions. (Buyers and sellers from separate economies may voluntarily trade without the domestic government applying tariffs, quotas, subsidies or prohibitions on their goods or services.)” In the previous decade, one of the many controversial subjects in the Canadian economy included whether or not it was beneficial for our federal government to eradicate free trade or open it up to other nations. During my research, I discovered that free trade agreements between Canada and other nations were not as beneficial as they may have seemed for they were often business and market oriented.
The Buying and selling, importing and exporting of goods and services, between two or more countries that have no limits or quotas or barriers or unbalanced tariffs is the dictionary definition for a free trade agreement (FTA). There are both advantages and disadvantages attached to FTA’s which is shown in figure 8.0.
The impact of globalisation has also changed the structure of Australia 's trade. There has been considerable growth in manufacturing and service industries with limited growth in the rural sector (Table 2). This reflects a combination of changes in world demand and domestic structural reforms.
Australia’s lack of international competitiveness as a result of geographical location and small population, as well as the decline of the manufacturing industry to overseas low cost producers, with the problem being further increased by the high AUD exchange rate, as a result of the mining boom. The fall in domestic production has led to an increase in imports and a fall in productive innovation compared to advanced economies has led to a rise in CAD.
Foreign investment has allowed the Australian economy to thrive cutting unemployment, doubling the country’s wealth and reducing national debt. Australia has leveraged trade to its advantage, with mining and other industries taking advantage of the fast-growing Chinese economy. Australia removed most trade tariffs and opened its banking to foreign partners, creating a successful investment climate.
Ever since the first involvement of government in international trade, many people have posed their opinion about what the role of government should be in it. Different factors are involved when it comes to deciding what this should be. It impacts a lot of people, so in order to do that, trade policy must be properly defined, identify what the roles of government currently are, and their involvement in it, and then analyse what should be their role. Trade policy is how a country carries out trade with other countries (Commercial Policy, n.d). Even though a lot of people support government intervention in international trade, countries would benefit a lot more if the government removes protectionism and promotes free trade instead.
The Australian economy is playing a crucial role in terms of global economy. Based on the government’s analysis, Australia has been placed at the top 20 for the world’s largest economy. This caused a lot of economists to pay attention to Australia’s performance. Economists use macroeconomic objectives to analyse the national economy. This essay will focus on two macroeconomic objectives, how they are measured, and how they relate to each other. Furthermore, it will also discuss Australia’s performance over the past three years (2013-2015) and predictions concerning Australia’s performance in terms of these objectives in 2016.
Economist have been debating between free trade and protectionism for decades. This debate has been most recently reiterated through President Donald Trump’s announcement that his administration would be taking steps to limit free trade in the United States. The opinion piece “Beware the Trump Trade Trap” by Liz Mair, argues that free trade is positively linked to a country’s prosperity, although most of the population may disagree with this. Mair argues that protectionism would limit consumption, however, it is important to also expand upon these ideas and to remember that free trade encourages prosperity, comparative advantage, and improves economic growth.
Australia’s trade policies, since the middle of the 1980’s, have been geared to opening domestic industries to the global market (Graph 1). A prime focus of structural reform has been to ‘subject the private sector in Australia to more competition from both domestic and international sources’ (Treasury, 1999). Australia has traditionally had high levels of protection, since the 1950’s in areas like textiles, clothing and footwear and motor vehicles. In the early eighties the effective rate of protection in the TCF industries was in excess of 200% and 57.5% for passenger motor vehicles. While some people would argue that cutting protection will reduce employment. Most industries that were heavily protected during the 1970’s and 1980’s still suffered losses of employment and were not efficient enough to compete in export markets.
The Australian Government participated in the reduction of trade barriers as part of the General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT). As a result there have been pressures on the above mentioned industries that were previously protected. They have effectively become, or are becoming, casualties of what is termed ‘a race to the bottom’ between national governments as they attempt to attract investment by undercutting competition.[vi] The industries without protection are inefficient and thus profit is affected forcing firms to shift elsewhere or outsource in search of improving efficiencies.
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is the pre-eminent economic rally in Australia’s region. APEC’s goal is to drive an extensive trade and investment liberalisation and facilitation agenda. It is focused on structural reform as a means of raising competitiveness and the efficiency of trade and investment flows. It has helped Australia with building and strengthening ties with other countries such as Brunei, Singapore, Philippines and other countries in the region. In 2009, 70% of Australia’s trade is with APEC countries.
One of the greatest international economic debates of all time has been the issue of free trade versus protectionism. Proponents of free trade believe in opening the global market, with as few restrictions on trade as possible. Proponents of protectionism believe in concentrating on the welfare of the domestic economy by limiting the open-market policy of the United States. However, what effects does this policy have for the international market and the other respective countries in this market? The question is not as complex as it may seem. Both sides have strong opinions representing their respective viewpoints, and even the population of the United States is divided when it comes to taking a stand in
Free trade has long be seen by economists as being essential in promoting effective use of natural resources, employment, reduction of poverty and diversity of products for consumers. But the concept of free trade has had many barriers to over come. Including government practices by developed countries, under public and corporate pressures, to protect domestic firms from cheap foreign products. But as history has shown us time and time again is that protectionist measures imposed by governments has almost always had negative effects on the local and world economies. These protectionist measures also hurt developing countries trying to inter into the international trade markets.
In the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith talks about international trade and subsequent government policies which became increasingly significant throughout modern history. Protectionism is the term for economic policies of restraining trade between countries when they want to protect their domestic industries from foreign competition. Trades nowadays have different forms and methods and involve more businessmen as well as consumers, which is why trade diplomats are looking to regional agreements. The US experienced two major economic declines during the 20th century, both of which had much to do with international trade. Smith mentioned tariffs in the 18th century, but the role and forms of protectionism have changed across time, so we should know whether the development of economy should actually be correlated with or decided by the political sector of the society and when protectionism will benefit or hurt economy.
”Free trade policies have created a level of competition in today's open market that engenders continual innovation and leads to better products, better-paying jobs, new markets, and increased savings and investment” (Denise Froning). Though Free trade plays a huge role in the economy today because of what and where it is used. Free trade allows for traders to trade across national boundaries and other countries without government interference. Meaning that traders have very few regulations that allow for them to do this without the government intervening. Free trade makes things for traders much easier and also allows for many more jobs in the US, such as exporting jobs, or jobs in the auto industry and plants. Though there are many