Analysis Of Arnstein 's Model As A Way Of Establishing Service Users
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However, as people are different so their interpretation of participation may differ. It is argued that Arnstein’s model as a way of establishing service users’ level of involvement may not always have the same meaning. Tritter and McCullum (2006, p156) points out that as Arnstein’s model relates to levels of power, ‘engagement of user participation is complex and individuals will formulate their own meanings and action that reflect in their own views of what participation is and how they want to involve themselves’. Looking at Kwame in the case study, he may not be at a position of power on the ladder. However, that may not necessarily hinder him from expressing what he wishes for. The hierarchy of participation may, therefore, be subjective.
While participation may have a positive impact to both individuals and service providers, there are barriers that hinder full participation and progression. Barriers can range from physical, social, organisational and structural, just to mention a few. A general overview shows that people with physical and mental disabilities or progressive chronic illnesses are the most targeted and isolated in the community due to stigma. This is supported in Adams, et al (2002, p290) stating in part that:
‘Discrimination against disabled people is institutionalised throughout society and welfare provision has compounded rather than alleviated that discrimination’. Adams, et al (2002, p290)
In the case study, it may appear that Kwame’s diagnosis of