Analysis Of Bartholomew & Quot ; An Adult Attachment Model

1378 WordsMay 2, 20166 Pages
Bartholomew & Horowitz (1991) developed an adult attachment model conceptualized through the understanding that a person’s image of the self and the other is dichotomized as positive or negative. Through this framework they developed four dimensions, that range from a combination of understanding the self as worthy of love or not and seeing other people as trustworthy or unreliable. This paper will focus on one dimension, dismissive attachment, and how the behaviors, thoughts, and feelings associated with this group disrupts the fundamental need for meaningful connections to people. Baumeister & Leary (1995) developed the Need to Belong Theory, which states that people have a pervasive drive to form and maintain stable interpersonal…show more content…
Those experiences with the caretaker are internalized and become a model for attachment expectations in later relationships. Attachment styles provide internal working models through which individuals perceive and relate to the world and to others (Shorey & Snyder 2006). The type of attachment style impacts what kinds of internal working models are developed. Subsequently, if an internal working model is seen as dysfunctional, there is the possibility of creating vulnerabilities to the development of psychopathology. Bartholomew & Horowitz (1991) also defined the different attachment styles, secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissive, according to dependence and avoidance. The researchers defined avoidance as the degree to which people avoid close contact with others as a result of their expectation of aversive consequences; and dependence is defined on a spectrum where those low in dependence represents the establishment of positive self-regard internally without the need for validation from others and those high in dependence are only able to internalize positive self-regard when they receive constant external validation. When combining the two dimensions, a dismissive attachment style indicates feelings of worthiness combined with a negative regard for other people. As a result of these ways of being, dismissive people protect themselves against being disappointed by avoiding relationships and maintaining independence and
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