Psychoanalysis created by Sigmund Freud is much like Individual therapy in the sense that it will explore the past and how any past circumstances are effecting the now adult. This therapy will last as long as the client needs the support of the counselor and relies on the client’s full participation. In this form of therapy the counselor will participate in guiding the client thru the unconscious mind to and find how it may be contributing to thoughts and behaviors that are causing the client distress. Like analytical therapy psychoanalysis will cover a variety of issues including psychosexual, compulsive, and depressive disorders. According to Haggerty, J. (2006) “The essence of Freud’s theory is that sexual and aggressive energies originating in the id (or unconscious) are modulated by the ego, which is a set of functions that moderates between the id and external reality. Defense mechanisms are constructions of the ego that operate to minimize pain and to maintain psychic equilibrium. The superego, formed during latency (between age 5 and puberty), operates to control id drives
Psychodynamic theory, although it is outdated, is the foundation for what we know as counseling today. It was first created by Freud and later expanded by Erikson and Jung. The focus of this therapy is mainly bringing the feelings and desires of the unconscious into consciousness and the unconsciousness’ role in behavior. It also postulates that there are different stages of personality development across the life span. Freud’s focus was on psychosexual development while Erikson used psychosocial stages as well. It concentrates mostly on childhood experiences, arguing that examination of the past leads to character development. This examination of the past and the unconscious can be accomplished through a number of techniques including
Clients are encouraged to keep a diary in which they note thoughts, feelings and behaviors at the times when they feel anxiety, anger etc. This is brought into each session and allows the counselor and client to discuss the rationality of thoughts and behaviors that have occurred since their last meeting. It also helps monitor client progress and review goals and strategies if necessary.
Psychoanalysis was first given its name in the 1980’s by Sigmund Freud. The theory was both founded and developed by Freud and plays a significant role in our understanding of Psychology and the human mind in this present modern day. Freud held a strong interest within the unconscious mind and believed unconscious thoughts and feelings to be at the root of psychological distress (Cabaniss, 2011). The aim of psychodynamic therapy is to bring forward the thoughts that hide deep within the unconscious, into the conscious mind to allow for psychological and self-awareness to develop within the client. The Psychodynamic paradigm is seen to hold a rather deterministic view towards humanity. According to the theory, humans are made up of inner instinctive drives (Rizq, 2010) and forces of which our thoughts, emotions, and thus our behaviour is motivated and driven by. Freud theorised that humans repressed certain emotions, desires and thoughts in infanthood (not childhood??). It therefore became an aim of
We also have to consider the difference in the role of the therapist between the different models, (R. Gross (Hodder, 2010 ) “in classical psychoanalysis, the analyst is meant to remain faceless, not showing any emotion or revealing any personal information”. If working within the Psychodynamic and Behaviourist approach the Therapist is relied upon
A important measure of psychodynamic therapy is the constant union that psychiatrist but forth to a patient to build a relationship where there’s trust. That is the only way to truly understand and gather all information needed to understand the emotions of the patient. Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung influenced psychodynamic, they were unconscious and psychic approach. Jung’s studies were mainly on spiritual influences and collective unconscious. The psychodynamic approach is based on the analysis of dreams, transference, and the insightful resistance (Plante, 2011). The goal is to understand human motives, drives, and other unconscious energies. The goals are to find a patient’s awareness of oneself and understand the influence of the past stimuli on the present behavior. A psychodynamic approach helps a patient to examine conflicts and symptoms that are unresolved and have developed from dysfunctional relationships of the past (Haggerty, M.D.,
The therapist's silence leads the patient to carry on with the talking, one thought leading to another and finding no echo in the therapist's mouth.26 The patient becomes extremely dependent to his therapist, awaiting a reply. Fédida reminds one of Ferenczi's major lessons implying that tact and contact are the two major features of psychoanalytic technic.27 Freud described the success of therapy and the psychoanalytic cure as a fiction, a Liebeskur or love cure as he reminds us in her commentary on Gradiva. Fiction is the imagination available to language. Love of language is necessary to the completeness of psychoanalysis as a creative rebirth of infantile seuxiality. The wonder of words and of the vocal in children when discovering language comes together with an extraordinary corporal awakening of sexuality.28 The difficulty of psychoanalysis lies in the fact that curing symptoms does not necessarily mean curing the psychological agitation. Slip of the tongue or forgetting appointments may be symptoms of strongly hidden, high importance conflicts. Communication within the patient may not be obvious, conscious and common sense messages might be, in some cases, beyond all awareness. Non verbal communication might have great significance worth analysing.29
The psychoanalytical approach developed by Freud concentrates on uncovering unconscious information responsible for a patient’s
When information is communicated and education is provided, the delivery of the information and education depends on the patients’ preferences. Incorporating the patients’ preferences in all aspects of care and how information is delivered, enables health care members to ensure patients comes first. In addition, it enables healthcare members to deliver high-quality care and to actively listen to all patients (Rinchen, 2010).
Therefore, therapeutic writing has been used in addition to other therapy techniques to aid the person in their recovery and quality of life. The most fascinating factor for implementing emotional writing is the method is adaptable to several therapy theories from Psychodynamic Therapy to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, “writings in general is beneficial to clients regardless of the theory behind its use,” (Kerner & Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 334). Consequently, therapeutic journaling then can be implemented via every counselor or psychologist irrespective of the theory in which they practice to treat their clients. Albeit that the enactment of emotional writing is not exclusive to one concept of therapy it can be exercised to a specific area
Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivating, thus gaining insight. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to relate repressed emotions and experiences, by making the unconscious conscious. It is only having a cathartic or healing experience can the Person helped and “cured” (McLeod, 2007). Some psychoanalysis Assumptions are that psychoanalytic psychologist see psychological problems as rooted in the unconscious, which is the case for Dexter. Also according to McLeod (2007) Manifest psychologist are caused by hidden disturbances as well as typical causes include unsolved issues during development or repressed trauma, and the treatment focuses on bringing the repressed conflict to consciousness where a person can deal with
1.2 Evaluation of the medical model and psychodynamic model to abnormal psychology. There are many different ways to define abnormality in psychology, this essay will outline and evaluate the main ideas, therapies and influence that both the medical model and psychodynamic model have had in the research of defining psychological abnormality. Freud (1994) is one of the biggest influences in psychoanalytic psychology. He believes that the root of mental distress can be found in childhood trauma and conflicts that have been locked away in the unconscious mind.
Psychoanalytic therapy was the first major psychological therapy created by Sigmund Freud. Freud thought people could achieve healthier, less anxious living by releasing the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts. The aim of Freud’s therapy was to bring patients repressed feelings into conscious awareness. By helping patients uncover hidden thoughts and feeling, the analyst could also give insight to the origins of their disorders. This new awareness could inspire them to take responsibility for their own growth. (411) Therapy techniques used included free association, dream analysis, and interpretation of instances of resistance and transference. Freud psychoanalytic therapy helped form the foundation for treating psychological disorders, mainly by influencing modern therapists working from the psychodynamic perspective.
Psychoanalytic therapy focuses on the client with an expressionless face, and analyzes how childhood events, and subconscious thoughts, plays a role in behaviors. There can always be an underlying reason behind what a person says, or why a person behaves a certain way. However there is only one way to really do psychoanalytic therapy without having the client feel as if they are being ignored. This is by not looking at the client. The stereotypical nature of therapy is for the client to lay on a couch while the therapist writes behind them. I believe this allows the client to express themselves with little anxiety, and allows the therapist to write down notes so they can get a better picture. Without the notes it is possible that the therapist will be unable to truly analyze the individual.
To begin with, Firth (2015) describes the Psychoanalytical approach (Freud) as focusing on the unconscious mind where events in childhood shape the potentially developed adult. For this reason, therapy aims to uncover past conflicts created in the unconscious mind and surface these (catharsis). Freud likened the mind to an iceberg. Additionally, within this approach is theory Firth (2015) also suggests Freud