Analysis of Ogburn's Theories and Revolutions on Technology

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1. Ogburn identifies four social revolutions that have occurred as the result of new technologies. The first was the move from the hunter-gathered model to pastoralism or horticulturalism, where people settled either to raise animals or to grow plants for food. Technologies for hunting or agriculture made such moves possible. As we were able to learn enough about food production to remain in one place for extended periods, we chose to do so. The next step was the move to an agrarian society. Using both animals and machinery, we were able to make significant improvements in food production, not just for food but for other uses as well. This allowed for much greater population density, as well as excess production for winter months. The third social revolution was the development of the industrial society. Machinery that dramatically increased productivity brought about industrial society, which incorporated a stronger division of labor. This lead to a dramatic restructuring of social relations, as instead of relationships or kin relationships, people's value was based on what they could do or produce. In the final stage, we have the post-industrial society. In this society, service is the primary occupation, rather than agriculture or industry. Improved transportation and especially communication helped to develop the post-industrial society, but so did advancements in industrial and agricultural production that allows most people to leave those fields (,

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