What is development? Development is “A progressive increase in the function of the body.” (growth and development book) As a nurse it is vital to understand what development means and how people develop, especially children. In this essay I will talk about two very important developmental theories, Erikson and Freud. In addition, compare their similarities and their differences.
Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902. Because his mother was Jewish and his father was not, he was often bullied in school. He had blonde hair and blue eyes, so his Jewish peers mocked him for standing out and being different, and his peers at school teased him simply for being Jewish. His own internal conflict with his identity sparked his interest in identity formation and development. Although he never actually received a degree in medicine or psychology, he became friends with Anna Freud who helped him study psychoanalysis. Erikson supported and was influenced by many of Sigmund Freud’s ideas. Freud had a theory on development, he called it the 5 stages of psychosexual development, this is one of the theories that Erikson
Erik Erikson believe that childhood is very important in personality development. He created a theory of psychosocial development that covers an entire life. I believe that Erik Erikson did a great job on creating these stages.
Psychologist Erik Erikson developed his eight stages of development to clarify the developmental challenges faced at various times in people’s lives. Stage-based theories of development were extremely popular during Erikson’s era. However, Erikson’s theory differs from other popular theories in that a person does not have to successfully complete one stage of development to move on to the next stage of development. Erikson’s stages of development are widely taught in psychology courses in the United States.
Knowing about our early years helps us to understand children and also widen and deepen our knowledge about ourselves (Robinson, 2008) When talking about psychological development in children and how various forms of abuse affect them, we must first discuss the two major developmental theories by Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. The nature of development itself is dynamic, changing, exciting and challenging. “Before we can think about the world and our experiences we must first get to know it. We need to be able to have certain basic concepts in place, have ways of communicating effectively and understand differences between all types of life experiences we encounter” (Robinson, 2008, 13).
The topic of focus is Down syndrome (DS) teenagers between the ages of 12 - 18 years old. According to Erikson growth and development theory there are five stages, namely: Infancy, Toddlers, Preschoolers, School-ages and Adolescence (Teenagers) (Leifer 2011, p.365). The stage of development that we will be elaborating on is stage five, Adolescence. Erikson defines adolescence as “the period of life beginning with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and ending with cessation of growth and emotional maturity” (Leifer 2011, p.451). Erikson continues in discussing that the major growth and development theory during the adolescence years in that he/she is trying to identify whom one is and because of their delayed physical and mental
During the time of infancy, the child cannot completely rely on themselves but has to depend on their caregiver. The subject in which I observed is a female baby and was born February 8, 2015. She will be referred to as D. B. As of now she is eight months so she is categorized in the infancy period. She is the only child, with a stay at home mom and working father who are married. Her mother is also a part-time college student taking online courses only. D.B. recognizes her mother well and tends to get upset when she’s not around at times. She spends more time with her mother due to her father being in the labor force. Most of the time while observing her is when her father was at work. D.B. is a dependent infant. She is unable to walk as
I am now in Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development and I am experiencing only industry and not inferiority. I am six years old and I am switching schools already. School is really hard for me because I am incredibly timid and I do not speak to any other classmates. My teacher also makes me cry everyday before and after school, so my parents and grandmother decided to take me out of private school in kindergarten. But I like school because it gives me a place to be productive in. I have a hard time adjusting to other classmates in my new school but I like my teacher in first grade, Mrs. Barnehart, and form a good relationship with her due to behaving well in class. She writes my mom notes and praises me for listening
When I was doing this assignment I taught about four amazing people who are, Piagets, Vygotsky, Skinner and Erikson. All four people have a different theory on how children should develop. I am also going to talk about the Jackson family what steps they should take.
In 1963, the psychology theorist Erik Erikson, developed the idea that each life stage has a psychosocial task that they must conquer. I was given the opportunity to observe his theory on my own through a series of interviews. The first person that I interviewed was an adolescent, whose psychosocial developmental conflict is between identity and role confusion. The next person that I interviewed was a young adult, whose conflict is between intimacy. The next person that I interviewed was of middle adulthood, whose crisis is between generativity and stagnation. Finally, I interviewed a woman in the stage of late adulthood, whose crisis is integrity versus despair. Ultimately, I was able to be a first-hand witness to development throughout life
However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time. No matter what, people form thousands of relationships to get through the ups and downs in life. To be honest, life would be pretty boring and empty without relationships. One of the most important relationships is the one that people form with their parents. Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences.
This paper explores the developmental theory created by Erik Erikson, which focuses on the major psychosocial dilemmas that a person struggles with over the course of their entire life. Following a brief biography of Erikson’s life, the paper will touch upon the 8 stages between birth and death wherein the most psychologically significant of these dilemmas take place. It will discuss the psychological impact of trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, and industry versus inferiority on early development from infancy through childhood. It will then cover the significance of identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair on the mind from adolescence to late adulthood. The importance of the specific positive concept in each struggle, including the accepted ways in which to help those concepts to flourish and grow, will be explored. Conversely, the likely causes of each of the negative concepts and their psychological impact on stunting the emotional growth of the individual will also be discussed, along with the influences that many of these concepts impact each other both directly in the next stage of development and indirectly many stages later.
In Erik Erikson’s theory he explains that in every stage, a positive or a negative attitude is developed within an individual. During our developing stages we are either successful or we fail. Each stage will come to us whether or not we’re ready for them or not. You can think of the stages as learning stages where crisis occur .Only if we have learned from the previous crisis we are successful. You cannot avoid 1 stage and move to a next stage because of the developing process. The outcome of our lives depends on the way we chose to progress throughout each stage in life. Erikson had his own way in describing each stage in life that we all must go through.
1 Describe the growth and developmental tasks that were displayed by the child you interacted with in this setting (Erikson, Piaget, and Freud). Were these tasks age appropriate? Did you assess any developmental challenges in the client that you interacted with? How were they dealt with (by you and by the health care team)?
Taking a look at the attachment theory right off the back you can see that with Chick not having his mother around it was difficult for him to attach to a caregiver. Growing up, as a child in a neglectful household would cause numerous difficulties throughout life. Not being able to form attachment with the primary caregiver (usually the mother) would hinder social and emotional development, confidence, the ability to make and maintain healthy relationships ("How can growing up without a mother affect a child?," 2017). The list is endless, children who grow up in neglectful and abusive, households learn to see the world in a 'unsafe' way and often suffer trauma as a result. I believe that due to what happened to chuck it had the opposite affect with his strength “Positivity”, because People especially talented in the Positivity theme have an enthusiasm that is contagious, basically they are upbeat and can get others excited about what they are going to do ("clifton strengthfinder," n.d.). This is true Chuck believed that he was capable of great things regardless of what he had to go through without a mother, being bullied, and all the above. He chose to look at his situation as positive as he could which carried on throughout his life.